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Reader's Guide:

The Mind of the South

© 2001 by W.J. Cash: Quandaries of the Mind

Go to Book I, Chapter I - Of Time and Frontiers
Go to Book I, Chapter II - Of the Man at the Center
Go to Book I, Chapter III - Of An Ideal and Conflict
Go to Book II, Chapter I - Of the Frontier the Yankee Made
Go to Book II, Chapter II - Of Quandary and the Birth of a Dream
Go to Book III, Chapter I - Of Easing Tension--And Certain Quiet Years
Go to Book III, Chapter II - Of Returning Tensions--And the Years the Cuckoo Claimed
Go to Book III, Chapter III - Of the Great Blight--And New Quandaries

(All references are to section numbers within the chapter sub nom and then to page numbers of the 1941 edition.)

The following list of references to persons, literary works, and certain coined phraseology used by W. J. Cash in The Mind of the South is comprehensive of the entire book, but in no wise, obviously, may it be substituted for the text of the book or its appreciation. Instead, this guide hopefully will serve to deepen understanding for the reader, especially with respect to the more arcane references, plentiful at this juncture, 60 years since publication. In compiling the list we are fully aware that what Cash said in some parts of the book is meant as "creative writing", that is subjective writing, and as such is deliberately made subject to varied interpretation without doing violence also to the "ordinary" meaning of the particular reference in its context or to the general theory being expostulated by Cash. Thus, deeper understanding of the dramatis personae and their authored works or organizations facilitate further decryption of the book. Passage of time, too, has lent enrichment to some of the terms and text historically--sometimes in ways already intuitively hypothesized by existing commentary on Cash, sometimes not.

Phrases like "Cloud-Cuckoo-Town", for instance, come alive in the reader's hands when one takes a worthwhile couple of hours to comprehend Aristophanes' political farce, "The Birds", from which the phrase is culled. (And while you are about that, read carefully, and if you can find it, listen to also, the last speech of Martin Luther King, (available at Stanford University's Martin Luther King Papers Project), delivered the night before his death, April 3, 1968. It's worth some thought.)

This guide does not, except in very limited instances, however, offer commentary on the references, as that would defeat the primary purpose of the book--Cash's primary intent in writing it--to engage the reader to think and debate. In those few instances where we have added comments, it is merely to facilitate a fuller understanding of the context of a phrase or term which is not in general usage today. The primary mission of the guide, however, is to direct the reader to either a particular referenced work and, to the extent possible, particular parts of that work which are relevant or, where Cash mentions only an author and not his or her work and we are consequently left to some educated guesswork as to the specific reference, to that which serves as a prime exemplar to demonstrate Cash's point. And being such, there may be better examples available about which we would be glad to hear.

On rare occasions we have found examples of a speech or writing of a person Cash references but in a context different from the reference, or, on even fewer occasions, in a context which suggests a different conclusion from the assessment provided by Cash. That so, one small excerpt of a body of a writing or a speech of an individual does not necessarily indicate that the whole context and tenor of his or her work was not as Cash describes. Just because the proof is not at present on the internet does not mean Cash is confuted, even in those limited instances. Thus, it is advisable to go to the library and dig through the same old musty texts as did Cash before positing any counter position. Some scholars in the past who have made broad sweeping gestures that "Cash was wrong in many of his details" seem always reticent to supply us with a single example which stands the light of day, instead relying on their credentials as support enough. Those who doubt, rest assured, as you will no doubt see, the evidence is ample that Cash read and researched his "subjective" analysis quite thoroughly; even the most persevering students will be hard-pressed to find any real errors of fact in either his descriptions or general attributions, errata on a couple of initials and first names notwithstanding.

Many of the works mentioned in the book, especially from the first part, are now in the public domain and are hence available on the internet. Where we have found them, we have provided links. Where the reference is to someone other than an author, or to an author whose work is not available on the internet, we have provided links to biographical data where available. If you run across helpful and apropos links which may be added to this list, please let us know at wjcash1@wjcash.org; also please inform us of any broken links. Virtually all links below, except those to Cash's own writing, are off site and thus may change from time to time without our realizing it. The linked sites are, with the exception of a few archived journal articles, non-commercial and usually associated with academic institutions; loathsome pop-up ads occur usually only with the occasional Britannica links. Where links are to secondary sources, we have tried to provide only sites which demonstrate accuracy and academic excellence, though in a few cases, a dearth of material on a given person or subject requires us to bend this rule slightly in favor of some credible information which can be sifted from the chaff by the reader.

And if you are angry at the reading of The Mind of the South, all the better. Cash would have greeted such with kindly professorial guidance. As he confided to Margaret Mitchell Marsh in April, 1941, he was often more upset with those critics "trying to be kind" than the ones "obviously out to do [him] dirt". For in that projection of anger, the reader for whom the book was most written may begin an exorcism of a sort, the first deep glimpse into the mirror of reality, whether immediately realized or not. But for goodness sake, put the book down and out of mind for awhile before falling headlong and irretrievably lost in the old time-honored brain-stopper, denial--a complex which seems to befall some when they first pick up Cash. There is a tired and tiresome rationalization heard repeatedly through the years by detractors of Mind which runs something like, "Well, I reckon he was just a smart country boy rebelling against his redneck daddy"--(it pays to start at the dedication page and from there take the studies on the whole of it)--or "I guess he sure must have loathed himself to write all that negative stuff about his native region--Our Beloved South" or some other explanation limiting the book's scope as narrowly and to as small a subset of Southerners as stretched credence will allow--if not merely Cash himself, then his own family, if not them, his neighbors--or could it be just Boiling Springs, Shelby, Charlotte, Piedmont North Carolina, North Carolina…Nebula Curia? That, we posit, is the first clue--the utterance of such extreme protest foretells the chrome being pasted to the underside of the glass darkly. So let protest occur roundly and rudely and, from it, understand.

Perhaps, Shakespeare said it best when remarking of the Lady...

It would take the average even well-educated soul many years, as it did Cash, to get all of the linked material below firmly into one's head, so if you are not already familiar with it, don't try to cram it there at once. There will be plenty of time. We suggest a quick read of The Mind of the South, not pausing too much to explore the finer points initially, then a thorough and slow exegesis over time of the text via the index of the book and this list. It took him ten years to write it. It should take longer than a few hours therefore to read and comprehend properly.

In August, 1940, shortly after delivering the completed manuscript, Cash wrote to his publisher Alfred Knopf that the writing of the book had been at times "strange stuff". When the reader begins to peer into some of the late eighteenth and nineteenth century thinking on Southern society and compare it across authors, one readily understands Cash's comment. But that strange stuff is the heart and soul and bloodlines of understanding the mind of the South. And there is a mind of the South to understand, just as there is a mind of the nation to understand, as it is with every social structure which develops separately over time divided from others by an open frontier, be it one of land or language or both. To dispute that is to say rather that all events occur essentially at roulette-random in the universe, like characters in a play set down from the ether as whole and immutable in a pre-quilled script, automatons without conscious thought, incapable of altering the world immediate or far, insensate beings who merely react autonomically to every discomfort. And thus it would follow necessarily that there is no literature, no poetry, no music, no impressionistic painting or photography, still or moving, in short, no art at all, or none which affects, which is to say none at all--just fact, indisputable, cold fact taken down judiciously by unbiased, robotic scribes and recorders. Not likely. Most serious scholars of Cash therefore find themselves reading the book more than once, spread years apart--and often coming out with shades of different opinions on each read, much as the seasons change around the book.

Bear in mind too the indisputable fact that Cash did not have computers, internet services, links, or lists of ready-compiled reference material by which to strive. He had to work by his lights and the helpful input of other scholars, especially that of noted Professor of Sociology, Howard Odum at Chapel Hill. He also had no proper library at his immediate disposal in Shelby or Charlotte; thus on several occasions he hitch-hiked and walked (some unsympathetic souls at the time, later confessing their earlier ignorance, said 40 miles "to our delight" on at least one occasion) between Boiling Springs or Shelby and Chapel Hill, N.C., about 200 miles each way, in order to partake of the rich offerings of the library at the University of North Carolina. Many of the links below are to those very same texts Cash combed from the U.N.C. card catalogue 65 and 70 years ago--but in the old-fashioned way, parked for hours in a carrel, squinting beneath smoke-ringed halos amid the stacks at the old dust-encrusted, barnacled monographs and long out-of-print tracts and treatises and fin de siecle magazine articles and yellowed newsprint. And for that decade of work, Cash never got more than the equivalent of about half of one year of his very low salary at The Charlotte News.

So if you run across something of value in this list, please remember that the citation comes from the pages cited in The Mind of the South and give due credit to Cash for his diligent scholarship so long ago. As Professor Morrison complained in his 1967 biography, Cash has been too often cribbed and plagiarized for decades without always receiving proper credit for his insight and theories, even by respected scholars on occasion. Yes, many of Cash's theories came from other Scholars Courageous who in turn obtained their ideas from others yet--the places ultimately from whence most of our better ideas emanate, from the kindly professor or school teacher doing his or her laborious task of trying to impart something rather good for relatively little pay to all us once-upon-a-time--if not still yet--dunderpates. But it was the pervasive, progressive scope, the collection and review of ideas, their distillation, their refutation, their acceptance or absorption into broader thesis, their placement against the times and people and events in the broad-sweep of Southern history and by extension, the history of the nation and, in turn, the civilized world--and then tossing some of it overboard, thinking, re-thinking, fretting, re-writing meticulously to form it all within an artistic conception to get at some basic, reasonably objective truth, not to prosecute, persecute, or condemn but to understand and thereby try to make it better--which made the work unique and singular at its time of publication. So if you take from it, even secondarily by way of this list, it should be that your footnote does begin thusly: The Mind of the South, by W. J. Cash, Knopf, 1941…

Book I

The Mind of the South: Its Origin and Development in the Old South

Chapter I

Of Time and Frontiers

Crèvecœur - 1, p. 5 - Letters from an American Farmer, Letter IX - "Description of Charles-Town; Thoughts on Slavery; On Physical Evil; A Melancholy Scene" - See also Letter III, "What Is an American?" - 1735–1813, American author and agriculturist, b. France as Michel Guillaume Jean de Crèvecoeur. It is believed that he served under Montcalm in Canada. After traveling in the Great Lakes region and in the Ohio valley and working as a surveyor in Pennsylvania, he settled (c.1769) on a farm in Orange co., N.Y., where he wrote Letters from an American Farmer (1782). Other letters, found in 1922, were published as Sketches of Eighteenth Century America (1925). The two books give outstanding descriptions of American rural life of the period. He wrote, over the signature Agricola, agricultural articles for American newspapers. He introduced the culture of European crops, notably alfalfa, into America and of the American potato into Normandy. As French consul in New York City (from 1783) he sought to improve commercial relations between France and the United States. He lived in France from 1790. --Note from Columbia Encyclopedia , Sixth Edition, 2001.

G.W. Dyer, Democracy in the South before the Civil War--monograph--Vanderbilt, 2, p. 6

John Bach McMaster - 1, p. 5 -1852–1932, American historian, b. Brooklyn, N.Y. Having practiced engineering in New York City and written two books, McMaster was appointed (1877) an instructor in civil engineering at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton). On a trip to Wyoming (1878), he was struck with the drama of the frontier, and his determination to write a history of the United States was renewed. After the successful appearance of his first volume in 1883, he was offered a newly created professorship of American history at the Univ. of Pennsylvania, where he remained until he retired in 1920. His History of the People of the United States (8 vol., 1883–1913), covering the period from the American Revolution to the Civil War, is marked by an emphasis on social and economic affairs, by the use of newspapers and other contemporary sources previously neglected by historians, and by a simple and straightforward narrative. He wrote a ninth volume, A History of the People of the United States during Lincoln’s Administration (1927) and a number of highly successful school textbooks. --Note from Columbia Encyclopedia , Sixth Edition, 2001.

James Ford Rhodes - 1, p. 5 - 1848–1927, American historian, b. Ohio City (now part of Cleveland). While studying in Europe he visited ironworks and steelworks in Germany and Great Britain, and upon his return he investigated for his father iron and coal deposits in Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee. In 1874 he became associated with his brother, Robert, and his brother-in-law Marcus A. Hanna, in an iron and coal business at Cleveland. Having made a considerable fortune, he retired in 1885 to devote himself to writing history. He moved to Cambridge, Mass., in 1891. His major work, History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 (7 vol., 1893–1906), which covered the years 1850–77, made him a national figure in historical literature. This work, upon which his fame rests, was highly praised by the critics, especially for its fair-mindedness, and has maintained its reputation fairly well. He was honored by numerous academic and literary institutions and societies. --Note from Columbia Encyclopedia , Sixth Edition, 2001.

Adam Thoroughgood, 1, p. 7 - see house

Moll Flanders - 1, p. 7

Judge Joseph Glover Baldwin - The Flush Times - 1853, 4, pp. 12-13 (quote from pp. 92-95); 6, pp. 17-18 (quote from pp. 81-88), also at III, 6, p. 71 (quote from pp. 198-200) - Also see some of the sketches in original separate form as they appeared in The Southern Literary Messenger, Richmond, July, 1852-August, 1853: "Sketches of the Flush Times of Alabama, Part I--Ovid Bolus, Esq, Attorney at Law and Solicitor in Chancery" July, 1852; "Part II--My First Appearance at the Bar, Higginbotham vs. Swink. Slander.", September, 1852; Sketches of the Flush Times of Alabama and Mississippi--The Bench and the Bar, Introduction" November, 1852; "Sketches of the Flush Times of Alabama, Part III--How the Times Served the Virginians. Virginians in a New Country. The Rise, Decline, and Fall of the Rag Empire", December, 1852; "Sketches of the Flush Times of Alabama and Mississippi, Part I--The Bench and Bar, Stocking a Laugh, January, 1853; "Sketches of the Flush Times of Alabama and Mississippi, Part II--Squire A. and the Fritters", February, 1853; "Sketches of the Flush Times of Alabama--Cave Burton, Esq. of Kentucky", April, 1853; "Sketches of the Flush Times of Alabama--Justification after Verdict", June, 1853; "Sketches of the Flush Times of Alabama and Mississippi--Hon. S.S. Prentice", July, 1853; and "Sketches of the Flush Times of Alabama--The Bar of the South-West", August, 1853; additionally see also in Southern Literary Messenger, 1853-54: "Representative Men: Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay--Part I", by Joseph Glover Baldwin, September, 1853, and "Part II", October, 1853; "California Flush Times--Letter from an Emigrant, San Francisco, June 15, 1850", by Joseph Glover Baldwin, November, 1853--(As James "Sunny Jim" Rolph, popular Mayor of San Francisco in 1911 and Governor from 1931 to 1934 said sometime circa 1932, "Helper was right."); "Old Uncle John Rosser and the Billy Goat", by Joseph Glover Baldwin, February, 1854 - Biography

William E. Dodd, 4, p. 13 - Biography; see incidentally correspondence with F.D.R. and speeches, 1933-35 and 1936-38 at the F.D.R. Library

Frederick Law Olmsted, 6, pp. 19-20 (quote); III, 5, p. 69 - See A Journey in the Back Country, p. 27, "Swell Heads", for quoted material

D. R. Hundley, Social Relations in Our Southern States, 1860, 6, p. 20 (re "Cotton Snobs", pp. 163-190); III, 5, p. 69

William L. Yancey - 6, p. 21; also at III, 8, p. 79 - Biography and see "The Orator of Secession: A Study of An Agitator", by William Garrott Brown, Atlantic Monthly, May, 1899

Book I, Chapter II

Of the Man at the Center

John Crowe Ransom - 1, p. 30 - (See, e.g., Poems about God)

William Lloyd Garrison, 5, p. 41; III, 1, p. 61; III, 8, p. 80; III, 10, p. 89 - Biography; see, e.g., The Abolition of Slavery: The Right of the Government under the War Power, Boston, 1861; The Spirit of the South Towards Northern Freemen and Soldiers Defending the American Flag against Traitors of the Deepest Dye, Boston, 1861; Southern Hatred of the American Government, the People of the North, and Free Institutions, Boston, 1862

Jean-Henri Fabre, 7, p. 45 - See The Mason-bees; Bramble-Bees and Others; and More Hunting Wasps

Thornwell, Presbyterian minister, S.C., 11, p. 57; III, 8, p. 80 - (See, e.g., Our Danger and Our Duty)

Dr. Cooper, 11, p. 57; III, 8, p. 80 - (See, e.g., Beams of Light on Early Methodism in America)

Tartarin, 11, p. 58

Tartuffe, 11, p. 58

Book I, Chapter III

Of An Ideal and Conflict

Lundy, abolitionist, 1, p. 61 - See Benjamin Lundy - Biography

Christopher Gadsden of S.C., 1, p. 61 - Biography

Joseph de Maistre - 2, p. 62 - Biography

Byron - 2, p. 62 - (See, e. g. Hebrew Melodies)

John Ruskin - 2, p. 62 - Biography - Selected Works

Coleridge - 2, p. 62 - (See, e.g., Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit)

Emerson - 2, p. 62 - (See, e.g., Essays, 1st)

Carlyle - 2, p. 62 (See e. g., "On Sir Walter Scott", 1838)

Fanny Kemble - 2, p. 62; 5, p. 69 Biography and further biographical material - See excerpt from Kemble's Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation and other excerpts; and mention in Frederick Douglass, by Charles Chestnutt; and see also book review by W. J. Cash, The Charlotte News, "This Lady Belittled Us", July 10, 1937)

Liberator - 2, p. 62

Harriet Beecher Stowe - 2, p. 63; 9, p. 83 - See Uncle Tom's Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly; see also Uncle Tom's Story of His Life. An Autobiography of the Rev. Josiah Henson (Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom"), London, 1876, and "A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin", by George Frederick Holmes, in The Southern Literary Messenger, June, 1853; A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin, 1853, including the story of the kidnaping of Solomon Northrop, also known as Solomon Northup, whose narrative Twelve Years a Slave was also published in 1853.

Rupert at Naseby - 3, p. 63 - Biography

William at Senlac - 3, p. 63 - Biography

Bruce, 3, p. 64 - Biography - See also The Brus, by John Barbour, ca. 1375, narrative poem in Middle English

Kenneth McAlpine 3, p. 64 - Biography and further history

Boru, 3, p. 64 - Biography and further history

Tess, Parson Tringham and John Durbeyfield, 3, p. 64 -

Davenport, 3, p. 64 - Biography

Henry (G.) Adams, 3, p. 64; (See, e.g., God's Image in Ebony)

Malthus, 3, p. 64 - (See, e.g., An Essay on the Principle of Population)

Blackstone, 3, p. 64 - Biography

H. J. Eckenrode, 3, p. 65 - re Sir Walter Scott - See The Political History of Virginia During the Reconstruction - 1904, repr. 1971

Hinton Helper, Impending Crisis of the South, 4, pp. 66-67 (quote from pp. 44-45) - N.Y., 1860, orig. pub. 1857 - see also The Land of Gold: Reality versus Fiction, Baltimore, 1855

Frederick Law Olmsted, 5, p. 69 - See A Journey in the Back Country (re "Swell Heads" pp. 25-29); see also A Journey through Texas)

D. R. Hundley, 5, p. 69 - See Social Relations in Our Southern States, 1860 (re "Cotton Snobs", pp. 163-190)

J. H. Ingraham, 5, p. 69 - Biography (See Joseph Holt Ingraham, 1809-1860, The Pillar of Fire, or, Israel in Bondage. London : George Routledge, 1875; The Prince of the House of David, London : Ward, Lock, 1855)

Judge Joseph Glover Baldwin - The Flush Times - 6, p. 71 (quote from pp. 198-200 re Hon. S.S. Prentiss) - see Chapter I reference for other linked material

William Gregg, S.C., 7, p. 78, (See letter)

William L. Yancey - 8, p. 79; also at I, 6, p. 21 - Biography and see "The Orator of Secession: A Study of An Agitator", by William Garrott Brown, Atlantic Monthly, May, 1899

Barnwell Rhett, 8, p. 79 (Desired for presidency of Confederacy; see Diary of Mary Chestnut and the Democratic Party split in the election of 1860 in Harper's Weekly) (As Cash never mentions the vaunted, over-vaunted in our opinion, Diary of Mary Chestnut, we feel compelled to register a comment and complaint against those trying to pass Ms. Chestnut off quite sentimentally as some Grand Lady of the South whose ideas were somehow "modern". Ho. Ho. Run "slave" and "slavery" through the diary in your search engine and see how modern she truly was. Against slavery? Not really. Ms. Chestnut was very much a product of her age--indeed she could have stood as Exhibit A for some of Cash's remarks--a rather usual plantation "aristocrat" of the Old South, apparently reasonably well-read, but, we dare say, not much on the thoughtful or analytical side; instead, she felt, as did most Southerners of her day. She never saw the duality on the one hand of feeling such sorrow--to herself at any rate, as it was a diary, after all--for the plight of her slaves, while on the other, giving every excuse in the world to the South for the institution's existence, indeed as much blaming the North for creating the system in the first place. One cannot help but feel sorrow for Ms. Chestnut. She was a woman of a lost world entering on one where she could not hope any longer to "hang suspended" in the Never-Never Land in which she lived with her plantation compadres. Indeed, her disjointedness speaks of a mind gone awry at times. But it was a pernicious evil by which they lived and one cannot sympathize with anyone living by it, even slightly--for there is a danger to that which is obvious. Ms. Chestnut rationalized her evil way of life--as did the bulk of the South. It can be understood, perhaps, but never rationalized. There is very little else to say about the diary. It is interesting for a totally subjective though limited view of that time, but little else. Relatively few lived as did Ms. Chestnut. (See Helper) Fantasies of grandeur notwithstanding, most of us would have been at best slave or sharecropper or merchant, maybe a jacksmith now and then, but not Senator and Brigadier General of the Confederacy Chestnut or Mrs. Chestnut. And there are far better and more useful insights to be gleaned from the same period from others, most of whom are linked in this list, both for and against the system of the South, those who took to the hustings or taught or wrote tracts--which is likely why Cash omitted any reference to the diary, well-promulgated though it was by 1940. It was not a public document at the time of the Civil War or, indeed, until 1905, and Ms. Chestnut did not go to the public square in Camden, South Carolina and state anything. So it is of little use in really understanding the whys and wherefores of the day. Yet, much as Margaret Mitchell's book of nearly four score years later, the Diary has gained sentimental acceptance, it seems, as something more than it is--especially since being given such prominence in Ken Burns' otherwise excellent documentary series on the Civil War, sentimental in scope though it was. Does this acceptance say something more of our own time than hers? For another white woman's contemporary point of view on the matter, try instead Fanny Kemble's account, the whole of which unfortunately is not at present online, a much more candid and sensitive presentation, we think. And as it was first published in 1863 while the author was very much still alive, it has proper provenance. But if perchance you come by it at the U.N.C. Library, don't burn the thing...)

Dr. Benjamin Palmer of N.O., 8, p. 81 (See, e.g., A Discourse before the General Assembly of S.C., Dec. 10, 1863)

Christy, 9, p. 83 - Biography (See also history, song lyrics--(at which we may laugh in sympathy and together again we may die or resistlessly laugh derisively because the only thing left to do is to cry), and the film, "Bamboozled", a Spike Lee Joint, 2000)

Melville Herskovits, The American Negro, 9, p. 84 (quote) - 1895–1963, American anthropologist, b. Bellefontaine, Ohio; educated at the Univ. of Chicago (Ph.B., 1920) and Columbia (Ph.D., 1923). After teaching at Columbia and at Howard Univ. he went to Northwestern Univ., where he taught anthropology from 1927. He did ethnographic research in Suriname, Haiti, Trinidad, and Brazil, but his most important work was done in Africa. Herskovits pioneered in the application of the principles of modern cultural anthropology to black ethnology. Among his works are The American Negro: A Study in Racial Crossing (1928), Dahomey (1938), The Myth of the Negro Past (1941), Man and His Works (1949; reissued 1955 as Cultural Anthropology), Franz Boas (1953), Dahomean Narrative: A Cross-Cultural Analysis (1958, with his wife, Frances S. Herskovits), and The Human Factor in Changing Africa (1962). --Note from Columbia Encyclopedia , Sixth Edition, 2001.

Cuffey, 9, p. 85; also mentioned in Book II, Chap. II, 1, p. 145; Book III, Chap. I, 13, p. 227 - Defined in Zell's Popular Encyclopedia, A Universal Dictionary of English Language, Science, Literature, and Art, by L. Colange, Philadelphia, T. E. Zell, 1871, as follows: "Cuffee, Cuffey, n. [Etymol. unknown], A cant term applied to negroes; it is sometimes used by them as a sarcasm." (The term may have originated from a variation on the name of Paul Cuffe, 1759–1817, a merchant, seaman, and philanthropist who advocated black emigration from the United States to Africa. See biographical sketch of Paul Cuffee in God's Image in Ebony, by Henry G. Adams, London, 1854) The term was probably picked up by Cash from Southern paternalistic pro-slavery religious literature to signify degraded, politically and religiously manipulated African-Americans before and after the Civil War, to the turn of the century. (See, e. g., Sermons, by Frederick William Robinson, 1816-1853, Boston, 1859, pp. 378-381, a message edifying in its principle of religious faith but unconsciously corrupted and manipulative in the parable chosen to exemplify the principle, ultimately betraying in even the "best sort" of white Southerner in the Old South that persistent nature of "Tartarin, not Tartuffe", the preaching of the code of Puritanism while exhibiting the means and ideals which were "anything but Puritanical"--yet, the result of inculcated Brobdignagian religious ardor, and its concomitant among the flock, the guilt complex about slavery and its inherent evil and cruelty.) "Cuffey" was also used in nineteenth century literature in conversations attributed to one African-American to refer to another African-American not in favor as in First Century of National Existence; The United States As They Were and Are, Hartford, 1875, page 392. Or, to show that the term was used in demeaning fashion not just in the South or with respect to Southerners, here an abstract from a poem published in Connecticut in 1792 mocking John Hancock who had arrested a playhouse owner for violating a Boston law forbidding stage plays and then his giving of a ball to which he had invited African-Americans, in Personal Memoirs and Biographies of Literary Men, Connected with Newspaper Literature, 1690 to 1800, by Joseph T. Buckingham, Boston, 1852, pp. 152-153. "Cuffey" was also apparently used in the nineteenth century and earlier as a term distinct from another term then in common usage, "Sambo", which developed from the spanish, "Zambo", meaning "bandy-legged", (see, Americanisms; the English of the New World, Maximilian Schele De Vere, p. 118, New York, Scribner, 1872), much as "pickaninny" derived from the bastardization of the spanish for "little child", "pequeño niño", (more probably the female form, pequeña niña), and, likewise, as with either a spanished hard "g" form of "Niger" or the archaic french for "black" working its way up the Mississippi from New Orleans, or both separately, became in the mouths of the misenunciates hearing the words of Spanish and French shipmasters describing their cargo to prospective chattel buyers in the auction stockade.) "Cuffey" is really a slightly variant form of "Uncle Tom", but there are subtle variations and the terms were not used interchangeably by Cash. The primary difference appears to be that Cuffey had a dream, albeit only a modest dream, not of social equality, but at least of rising within his accepted white paternalistic framework to realize "forty acres and a mule", even to achieve limited political power as in Reconstruction, never giving conscious thought to the notion that he was still subject to the white master as surely as on the plantation. He had merely exchanged the slaveowner for the Northern industrialist out to penalize or at least limit, for political and economic gain, the formerly ruling white Southern structure after the Civil War, or, after Reconstruction, for the Southern millowner and absentee cotton planter. Hence, Cuffey in the above-linked sample goes so far as to convert his master to faith, despite having received his daily regimen of lashes for the simple rebellion of insisting on praying against his master's wishes. By contrast, perhaps, it can be argued that "Uncle Tom", as it is often used in common parlance, represents pure obeissance, someone with no dream at all for this lifetime. Perhaps Cash chose the more obscure image of Cuffey as a literary device merely to divorce the reader from time-worn misconceptions of Uncle Tom as an image, or that of the "hi-yiing Christy", and thus engage the thinking process more fully. He obviously did not intend some prototypical individual who actually existed perfectly formed. Much the same can be said of "the Man at the Center", the "Proto-Dorian" convention, his "old Irishman", and other such quintessential literary forms used by Cash to represent large groups of people in short-hand, who as individuals in reality Cash was well aware actually exhibited all the variations normally expected of individuals while also exhibiting those tendencies fitting them within the larger figure. As Cash wrote to Howard Odum on November 22, 1929, "As to classes and classifications--I realize, of course, that they are fictions, here as in everything else. And I have sometimes hesitated over writing the book at all just because of the fear that the literary demand for simplification might result in a wholly inadequate representation of the South. However, I comfort myself with the hope that my fictions will serve for the getting at of at least part of the truth, and that the part which is being pretty generally ignored."

Colonel Bascombe, 9, p. 85 - See Wilmington editor Manley's take in 1898

Rousseau, 10, p. 87, (See The Social Contract)

August Comte, 10, p. 87, the "father" of sociology, (See The Positive Philosophy of August Comte)

Professor Thomas Roderick Dew of Virginia, 10, p. 87, (See Essay on Slavery) See also A Digest of the Laws, Customs, Manners, and Institutions of the Ancient and Modern Nations, 1853 - (Oh Rhe-yett, look what I have found...); and see summary of viewpoint

Chancellor Harper of S.C., 10, p. 87 - See William Harper - (See mention in Journal of the Senate of S.C., 1863)

Agricola Fusilier, 10, p. 88 - quote - (See The Grandissimes, by George Washington Cable)

Thomas Jefferson, 10, p. 88 (See Autobiography, 1821, especially pp. 43-44; see also A Political Textbook for 1860, N.Y., 1860)

Congressman J. H. Hammond of S.C. 10, p. 89 - (See quote in footnote in A Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States: Its Causes, Character, Conduct and Result, Presented in a Series of Colloquies at Liberty Hall, by Alexander Hamilton Stephens, 1812-1883, Philadelphia [etc.], National publishing company; Chicago [etc.], Zeigler, McCurdy & Co., 1868-70)

Prof. B. S. Hedrick, U.N.C., 10, p. 89 (See quote in The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet It, by Hinton Rowan Helper, 1829-1909, New York, A. B. Burdick, 1860)

John C. Fremont, 10, p. 89 - Biography - (Id., Helper, 410) (Also see generally The Life of Col. John Charles Fremont, and His Narrative of Explorations and Adventures, in Kansas, Nebraska, Oregon and California, The Memoir by Samuel M. Smucker, John Charles Frémont, 1813-1890, New York, Auburn, Miller, Orton & Mulligan, 1856)

Cassius Clay, Ky, 10, p. 89 (See A North-Side View of Slavery, by Benjamin Drew and Narrative of the Sufferings of Lewis Clarke, by Lewis Clarke and Fifty Years of Slavery in the United States, by Harry Smith)

John G. Fee, Ky, 10, p. 90 - Biography - (See The Autobiography of John G. Fee, Chicago, 1891; and "Plessy versus Lochner: The Berea College Case", by David E. Bernstein at the Journal of Supreme Court History, Vol. 25, Issue 1, March, 2000, which provides historical perspective on the U.S. Supreme Court's 1908 ruling, Berea College v. Commonwealth of Kentucky, 211 U.S. 45, holding Fee's integrated Berea College was subject to Kentucky's Day Law, enacted shortly after Fee's death, which had overwhelmingly passed the state legislature, with national public approval, even from the likes of the president of Harvard, making it illegal in Kentucky to teach whites and blacks on the same private college campus or within 25 miles of one another; the Court side-stepped Constitutional issues and held that the law merely acted to amend Berea's corporate charter with the State and so was a legal exercise of State power to restrict the rights of corporations, even as to rights granted to individuals by the Constitution. As with the earlier infamous separate-but-equal holding in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, Justice John M. Harlan, (grandfather to John Harlan, appointed in 1955 to the Court by President Eisenhower), registered a bold dissent. Justice Harlan's view in Plessy, as well as the spirit of his approach in Berea College, finally prevailed in the unanimous decision in Brown v. Board of Education, repudiating the doctrine of separate but equal in 1954. The next year's implementing decision, coining the notorious phrase, "with all deliberate speed", however, would inadvertently work to deny substantial progress in public school integration in the South for another decade and a half, the South's predominant political interpretation of this phrase being in the Fifties and Sixties to equate "all deliberate speed" with sloth. See, e.g., Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, 1971, and Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Board of Education v. Scott, 1971, with the question of busing remaining a political issue in such places as Louisville and even in Boston through 1975.)

John Hampden Pleasants, Richmond Whig, 10, p. 90 (bio. sketch in Sketches and Recollections of Lynchburg by Margaret Couch (Anthony) Cabell, 1814-1882, Richmond, C. H. Wynne, 1858, and Virginia, Especially Richmond, In By-Gone Days, By Samuel Mordecai, Richmond, 1860, and in A Biographical Sketch of Henry A. Wise, with A History of the Political Campaign in Virginia in 1855, Hambleton, James Pinkney, Richmond, Va., J. W. Randolph, 1856)

Sallust, 11, p. 91 - Biography - (Mentioned in From Slavery to a Bishopric, by S. J. Celestine Edwards)

Joseph Le Conte on Langdon Cheves, 11, p. 91, 93, 94 - The Autobiography of Joseph Le Conte, pp. 174-175; see also, How to Make Salt from Sea-Water, by John Le Conte (brother of Joseph)

Origin of the Species, 11, p. 91, 93

Mrs. Radcliffe, 11, p. 91 - Biography - (See, e.g., The Mysteries of Udolpho)

William Gilmore Simms, 11, p. 92 - (See, e.g., The Life of Captain John Smith, the Founder of Virginia)

Washington Allston, 11, p. 92 - (See, e.g., Elijah in the Desert)

Poe, Southern Literary Messenger, 11, p. 92; see also "The Late Edgar A. Poe", by John Reuben Thompson, Southern Literary Messenger, November, 1849 and "Edgar A. Poe", April, 1854

Pinckneys, 11, p. 92 - Biographies of Charles, Charles Cotesworth, and Thomas

Rutledges, 11, p. 92 - Biographies of John and Edward

Henry Laurenses, Charleston, 11, p. 92 - Biographies of Henry, and John

Matthew Fontaine Maury, Physical Geography of the Sea, 11, p. 94

John J. Audubon, 11, p. 94 - Drawings and biography, "Carolina Parakeet", and other drawings - (Mentioned in The Old Plantation: How We Lived in Great House and Cabin before the War, by James Battle Avirett)

Matthew Arnold, 11, p. 94; (See, e.g., Culture and Anarchy, 1882)

Phillip Pendleton Cooke, "Florence Vane", 12, p. 96

Remy de Gourmont, 12, p. 97 - (See, e.g., The Natural Philosophy of Love, N.Y., 1922)

Henry (B.) Adams - 12, p. 98-99 (Quote from The Education of Henry Adams re Roony Lee)

Book II

The Mind of the South: Its Curious Career in the Middle Years

Chapter I

Of the Frontier the Yankee Made

Hinton Helper, 3, p. 107 - The Impending Crisis of the South - N.Y., 1860, orig. pub. 1857 - see also The Land of Gold: Reality versus Fiction, Baltimore, 1855

Benjamin H. Hill, of Georgia, 5, p. 114 (Quoted in The Southern Question: The Bourbon Conspiracy to Rule or Destroy the Nation)

Jeb Stuart, 7, p. 121 - Biography

the golden-locked Pickett, 7, p. 121 - Biography

the terrible Forrest, 7, p. 121 - Biography

Lord Roland and the douzepers, 7, p. 121 - See Song of Roland and Orlando Furioso, by Ariosto, 1516

Walter White, 7, p. 122 - Biography and Britannica article

Cloud-Cuckoo-Land, 8, p. 124 - (See The Birds, by Aristophanes)

Stark Young, River House, 8, 125 (See, e.g., Guinevere, A Play in Five Acts) (See also "Eugene O'Neil", by Stark Young, a review in The New Republic, November 15, 1922)

James Branch Cabell, The Rivet in Grandfather's Neck, 8, p. 125 (See, e.g., Jurgen)

Happy-Happy Land, 9, p. 127 - happy slave, happy master

Thomas Nelson Page, 9, p. 127 - (See, e.g., Marse Chan)

Galahad, Sangraal, 9, p. 127 - See High History of the Holy Graal and Lancelot, or the Knight of the Cart

Thorough, 11, pp. 134-137, see Radical Reconstruction - (See for atmosphere of 1871 in and around upper South Carolina and reaction to Klan violence "Testimony Taken by the Joint Select Committee [of Congress] to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States, South Carolina, Volume II", Government Printing Office, Washington, 1872)

Walter Hines Page, 11, p. 136, 13, p. 143 - Biography

George Washington Cable, The Silent South, 11, p. 136; The Grandissimes, 13, p. 143

James Woodrow of S.C., 12, pp. 139, 140 (Mentioned by Sidney Lanier in Poems of Sidney Lanier and Minutes of the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America)

Alexander Winchell, Vanderbilt, U. of Michigan, 12, p. 139 (See brief discussion and biographical sketch and index of papers at the University of Michigan) (Position on race for which he was dismissed at Vanderbilt explained in African Letters, by Henry McNeil Turner)

Ben Butler, 12, p. 139 (Discussed in Marse Henry: An Autobiography, by Henry Watterson and The Souls of Black Folk, by W.E.B. DuBois)

Darwin, 12, 139-140 - (See The Descent of Man)

Huxley, 12, 139-140 (See Evolution and Ethics, and Other Essays, by Thomas Henry Huxley)

Sidney Lanier, 13, p. 141 - Biography; see Poems of Sidney Lanier, New York, 1884

Joel Chandler Harris, Uncle Remus, 13, p. 143 - (See, e.g., Free Joe)

Ellen Glasgow, 13, p. 144 - Biography - (See, e. g., The Battle-Ground)

Book II, Chapter II

Of Quandary and the Birth of a Dream

Farmers' Alliance 6, p. 158 (See discussion)

Ben Tillman, 6, p. 159; 9, 170 - Biography

C. W. Macune, Farmer's Alliance 6, pp. 160-161 - See Charles W. Macune of Texas - History and further history; (mentioned)

Red Shirts 9, p. 169 (Origins, see "Testimony Taken by the Joint Select Committee [of Congress] to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States, Alabama", Government Printing Office, Washington, 1872 and page 1487 and Mississippi. Note the debate about the Klan whistle and bell signals and see Cash's last article ever written, "Report from Mexico", and Mary's account in The Red Clay Reader.) (Also see the absurd description of this dark revivification of the Klan without hoods in Thomas Dixon's "rabid" fiction, The Leopard's Spots, Book III, Chapter XIV, p. 445 et seq.. Mr. Dixon forgot to tell us that in the "no violence except the calm demonstration", Red Shirts shot and killed eleven African-Americans in Wilmington, N.C. in 1898 and burned a black-owned newspaper.)

Henry Cabot Lodge 9, p. 169 - Biography

Force Bill, 9, p. 169 - Discussed

Proto-Dorian, 10, p. 172 - Dorian discussed and discussed further The need for such a closely nuanced expression as this Cash construction is exhibited in correspondence between Cash and Professor Howard Odum at Chapel Hill. On November 20, 1929, Odum responded to a five-page outline of the book which Cash had sent him seeking any suggestions: "I think there is a real place for a book of the sort which you plan, giving it a sort of zestful attack somewhere midway between the factual analysis and critical philosophy... In my own case I should not draw the lines very closely between the different cultural groups of the South. That is, the line between your old-time romantic gentleman of the South and other types or between one generation and another generation of the same family were not always so closely drawn as the ordinary picture would suggest. That is, many of the southerners who were reputed to have a plantation and leisure still ate dinner in their shirtsleeves and washed on the back porch and let the chickens roost in the top of the trees in the yard. Or did they? Many of the beautiful old homes and great families grew up from log cabins in the pioneer wilderness, enlarged and rebuilt and then entirely transcended by the big house. What was the difference between the first generation and the third? Even so, for the purpose which you have in mind, it is important to set forth each of these stages or characterizations in so far as it can be done..."

J. L. M. Curry, Ala. 10, pp. 173, 174- (See The South in the Olden Time and discussion in An Autobiography: The Story of My Life and Work, by Booker T. Washington)

William Henry Ruffner, Va., 10, p. 173 (See, e.g., Letter from Lee)

Henry Grady, 10, p. 174; 11, p. 177; 13, pp. 182, 184 - Biography

Charles Brantley Aycock, 10, p. 174 - Biography

Dr. Broadus Mitchell, The Rise of Cotton Mills in the South, Johns Hopkins U., 11, p. 176 (See biographical sketch and index of papers at The University of North Carolina Southern Historical Collection)

Progress, 11, p. 176; 13, p. 184

Cotton Mill Campaign, 11, p. 176

Mr. Pearson, Salisbury (N.C.) revivalist preacher, 11, p. 177

Gerald W. Johnson, 11, p. 178 - Wake Forest graduate, friend of Cash, and journalist for The Baltimore Sun (See Wake Forest Commencement Address: "The Future and Dr. Poteat")

Allen Tate and the Southern Agrarians, 12, p. 181; (See, e.g., Ode to the Confedereate Dead)

Charles Colcock Jones, Jr., Ga., 12, p. 181 (See e. g. The Siege of Savannah and The Religious Instruction of the Negroes; mentioned in The Autobiography of Joseph Le Conte, p. 13)

Lucius Lamar, 13, p. 182 - Biography (and further discussion in The Memories of Fifty Years, by W. H. Sparks) (See also Testimony Taken Before A Joint Select Committee [of Congress] on the Disturbance in the Late Insurrectionary States, Mississippi, Washington, 1872, pp. 1160-61)

Walter Hines Page, 13, p. 183 - Biography and Photo (Note that Page was a partner in Doubleday, Page, & Co. and in such capacity in 1902-5 published Thomas Dixon's The Leopard's Spots and The Clansman; so taken was he with reading the manuscript of The Leopard's Spots that he bloodied it when he stepped in front of a New York streetcar not looking where he was going. Perhaps, an "ominous stern whisper from the Delphic cave within"?)

Book III

The Mind of the South:

Its Survival, Its Modifications, and Its Operations in Our Times

Chapter I

Of Easing Tensions--And Certain Quiet Years

Progress, 1, p. 190-191, 3, p. 193, 4, p. 195, 5, pp. 200-202, 6, p. 203, 7, p. 207, 210, 9, p. 213, 10, p. 215-218, 11, p. 221, 12, p. 225, 14, p. 232, 15, p. 233

Edgar Atkinson of Boston, 1, p. 191

Buck Duke, 3, p. 195 - Biography; see also "Buck Duke's University", by W. J. Cash, American Mercury, September, 1933

R. J. Reynolds, 3, p. 195 - R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company discussed

Candlers, 3, p. 195 - See History in article re Andrew Sledd of Emory

Cannons of Concord (N.C.), "(predestined towel kings)", 3, p. 195 - See history of Cannon Mills, Inc. 1836-1983 at Duke University Special Collection Library

Thomas Dixon, Jr., The Leopard's Spots, 3, p. 197 - Mr. Dixon did not want for self-congratulations and self-immersion in his quarterhorse scholarship. A Wake Forest College graduate in the mid-1880's, his "Preacher" in the book is himself, or at least as the pluperfect "Lawyer - Minister - Author - Orator - Playwright - Actor" liked to think of himself. (See p. 8 of his Spots) And so too did many around Shelby and elsewhere, North and South, for decades, most not having the groggiest notion of what he wrote of course, just that it sounded kind of nice and sweet to them. And they had seen that movie. The Reverend's greatest pulpit actually was the paper-wooden Rockefeller-endowed "People's Church" of New York City to which throngs came to hear Orlando's ungrounded sheets-of-lightning oratory. Perhaps he had forgotteneth the one about "all is vanity", and most of the rest as well in his raunchy donkey-talk. Query whether the Preacher in the end proved the donkey? Pardon the bias, but--well, rev., what's right's right, right? I for I and twoeth for twoeth and all that jazz. Which cavalry did that old General Isaiah lead for the Confederacy? Cluck-Cluck-Cluck.

Ellsworth Huntington, 4, p. 198 - Biography

Child labor in cotton mills, 4, pp. 198-199; 12, pp. 225-226; Bk. III, Chap. III, 8, p. 371 - (See historical sketch and photos from the National Child Labor Committee's work at The Library of Congress)

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, History of Wages in the United States from Colonial Times to 1928, 4, p. 198

Edgar Gardner Murphy, Ala., 4, p. 199, 12, p. 224 (See index of papers and biographical sketch at The University of North Carolina Southern Historical Collection)

Harriet Herring of U.N.C., 8, p. 211

Thomas De Quincey on fighting with lower class factory boys in Manchester, 8, p. 212 - Autobiographic Sketches, Boston, 1853; see also Confessions of an English Opium-Eater, and Suspiria de Profundis, Boston, 1866; (mentioned in A Rebel's Recollections, by George Cary Eggleston, Cambridge, 1875, and in Dialect Tales by Katherine Sherwood Bonner McDowell)

Proto-Dorian bond of Democratic Party, 9, p. 213 - Query whether since the "Southern Strategy"--the notion that a national candidate should tell 'em what they want to hear in the spring and then moderate the winky-nod in the fall--was taught a party at large by Richard Nixon in 1968, we have entered the age of the Nucleo-Thermidorian bond of the Republican Party. Is such not evident as never before in the aftermath of election day in the year 2000 in our most diverse Southern State, wherein nicely-suited lawyers, among others, halloed up the Dade counting roti-room? Do the tactics not in fact reach the level of the drunken grogs of the Beer Hall Putsch? Who are these lawyers? Why do they drink the groggy Beer? What of the oath to uphold the laws and the Constitution of the United States? And what of the laws of disturbing the peace and of trespass which ordinarily would work to evict such transgressors with ignominy? Flying squadrons? Where was the reeve of the shire who readily tossed such rowdies on their unguarded Kembles in Chicago, 1968? In Los Angeles, 1992? In many places in between and before and after? Oh, so we have changed--and so quickly--Progress, says the eternal optimist among us. But only so if the rowdy happens to be of a certain strategic persuasion, maybe a sympathetic partisan to the reever, no? Or not?

William L. Yancey, 11, p. 220 - Biography and see "The Orator of Secession: A Study of An Agitator", by William Garrott Brown, Atlantic Monthly, May, 1899

Barnwell Rhett, 11, p. 220 - (Mentioned in Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, edited by Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris, Chapel Hill, 1989)

Wade Hampton, 11, p. 220 - (See The Last Flag of Truce, by Dallas T Ward, Franklinton, N.C., 1914)

George F. Babbitt, 11, p. 221 - Babbitt

Dr. Alexander J. McKelway, Southern secretary for the National Child Labor Committee, Presbyterian minister of Charlotte, 12, p. 223 - (See historical sketch and photos from the Committee's work at The Library of Congress)

Ben Tillman of S.C., 12, p. 224 - Biography

Hoke Smith of Ga., 12, p. 224 - Biography

David Clark of Charlotte, Textile Bulletin, 12, p. 224, 14, p. 229 - See on microfilm at the University of North Carolina, North Carolina Room, Wilson Library, at call number

Mordecai Ham of Ky., 13, p. 228, 14, p. 229 - Biography

"Cyclone Mack" (Baxter McClendon) of S.C., 13, p. 228, 14, p. 229 - See, e.g., "Religion in the Raw: Cyclone Mack in Burke County (N.C.), August-September, 1920", by Edward W. Phifer, Jr. in The North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 48., No. 3, July, 1971

Rev. Elmer Gantry, 14, p. 228 - (See Sinclair Lewis (or Burt Lancaster, as you please))

Tartarin, 14, p. 228

Tartuffe, 14, p. 228

Education of Henry Adams, 14, p. 228

George W., 16, p. 235; also Chap. III, 5, p. 358 - go figure

Howard Mumford Jones, 16, p. 237 - Harvard English professor - See, e.g., "The Influence of European Ideas in Nineteenth-Century America", American Literature, Vol. 7, No. 3 (November 1935), pp. 241-273.

Book III, Chapter II

Of Returning Tensions--And the Years the Cuckoo Claimed

Progress, 1, p. 240, 3, p. 248, 5, p. 254, 6, p. 259, 7, p. 262, 8, p. 265, 10, p. 271, 273, 12, p. 282, 17, p. 299, 18, p. 305-306, 22, p. 320, 23, p. 324, 24, p. 328, 25, p. 332 - Hear and read "The South in a Changing World", as delivered by W.J. Cash, June 2, 1941 at the University of Texas at audio link on menu bar above

Prince Green of Columbus, Ga., 2, p. 243 - president of National United Textile Workers' Union, 1898-1900

Cole L. Blease, 2, p. 245, 4, p. 250-251, 13, p. 284, 286, 17, p. 301 - (1868-1942) South Carolina Governor (1911-15) and Senator (1925-31) - Biographical information and photo and further biographical information (See mention) (Sample of positions: stands on creation of Federal Radio Commission in 1927 and creationism generally; stand against "Doiby Al" in Time, April 30, 1928)

Tom Watson, Ga., 2, p. 245; 3, p. 248 - Biography

Proto-Dorian front, 2, p. 245, 4, p. 252

Ben Tillman, 2, p. 245, 3, pp. 246-247, 3, p. 249, 4, p. 250-251 - Biography

Red Shirt days, 3, p. 247 - The Red Shirts (descendent of the Klan) originated in South Carolina under the leadership of Ben Tillman in 1876 in reactionary reaction to Radical Reconstruction and eventually spawned race riots, again under Tillman's leadership, in Wilmington, N.C. in 1898, resulting in the brutal shooting deaths of eleven African-Americans. The name came from the group's adoption of the convention of wearing bright red shirts to exhibit their one common ideal--frightfulness. The latter resurgence was justified at the time by many otherwise progressive politicians and newspapers, especially the Raleigh News and Oberver under Josephus Daniels, some of whom had helped urge the Red Shirt campaign, because of a supposed libel against white women printed by a Wilmington black newspaper editor whose offices were burned in the melee. The putative libel printed by the editor was the claim that poor white men must take better care of their women because they were apt to have clandestine meetings with black men, meetings which when found out led to charges of rape, followed by lynching. He further charged that the lynching victim was improperly labelled a "Big Burly Black Brute" when in fact many had white fathers and were therefore "sufficiently attractive for white girls of culture and refinement to fall in love with". (See Editor in Politics, by Josephus Daniels, 1941, pp. 283-312) The final result of this bloody 1898 campaign was the wresting of control from the "Fusionist" (interracially aligned with Populists) Republican Party then governing North Carolina. The successful Southern Democrats (a party distinct in form and at least partially in ideal from both the national Democratic Party of the day and the modern Democratic Party which would begin in earnest under President Roosevelt) favored the "white supremacist" platform, resulting in a "suffrage amendment" to deny "the ignorant Negroes" the right to vote. To fully comprehend this gradual evolution of parties and party membership from the nineteeth century to the latter twentieth century, the reader should likely begin with Darwin, understanding that the party of George Wallace, Lester Maddox, Orville Faubus, Furnifold Simmons, Ben Tillman, Cole Blease, Theodore Bilbo, Ross Barnett, et al. was as different from the party of Franklin Roosevelt, Harry Truman, John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Albert Gore, Jimmy Carter, Terry Sanford, Claude Pepper, Luther Hodges, Thomas Hardwick, Frank Porter Graham, and others as is Pluto from Earth and then some. The former were Democrats in name only, an expediency adopted for political favor among the still Confederate-waving majority--but a wavering majority--of their then Southern constituencies, and, without overstating the case, more properly identified in fact in attitude, symbols, goals, and dreams with those of the National Sozialist Party in Germany--also a "populist" party--than with any other major movement in modern times. See "Jehovah of the Tar Heels", by W. J. Cash, American Mercury, July, 1929

Hoke Smith, Ga., 3, p. 248 - Biography

W. K. Vardaman, Miss., 3, p. 248 - See James K. Vardaman - Biography; see also another view

Populism, 3, p. 250, 4, p. 251-252, 13, p. 283, 17, p. 299

N.G. Gonzales, editor of the Columbia State, 4, p. 251 - Opposed Ben Tillman for Governor of S.C. and with brother, A.E, then established paper in 1891; shot and killed by Tillman's nephew, Lt. Governor of S.C., James H. Tillman, in 1903, as Tillman blamed State editorials for loss of Democratic nomination for governor - (See partial biography in "South Carolina Newspapers")

Cotton Ed Smith, S.C. Senator, 4, p. 251, 17, p. 301-302 - Ellison Durant Smith (1864-1944) Senator 1909-44 - Biography

German and Japanese cotton competition with the South, 5-6, pp. 253-261; other foreign market, 10, p. 274

South Sea Bubbles, 7, p. 263 - An investment scheme of the South Seas Company in England which lasted from 1711 through 1720, closely paralleling in time and method the Mississippi Company's boom in France from 1717 through 1720; the schemes involved assuming the national debts of their respective countries, such that the creditors received shares in the respective companies, the South Seas Company specializing in trade with South American Spanish colonies and the Mississippi Company, whose conjuror was a Scottish gambler named John Law, having a monopoly on trade with French colonies in the New World, predominately through the Mississippi Valley. Puffing methods, bribes in the form of free shares to government officials, and outright chicanery caused the bubbles in the stock prices in the companies as a trading frenzy among the wealthy and worker alike prevailed--until both companies went bust from overinflated stock prices which eventually plummeted, taking down many investors with them, including, in the case of South Seas Co., Sir Isaac Newton, once again proving his theory.

Babbitt, 8, p. 267, 14, p. 291 - Babbitt

Teapot Dome, 8, p. 267 - Discussed

John Addington Symonds, 8, p. 267 - Biography - (See, e.g., Translation of The Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini)

Professor R. P. Brooks, Ga., 11, p. 275 (quote) - See "American Cotton Association", South Atlantic Quarterly, Vol. XIX, No. 2, April, 1920, The Industrialization of the South, Athens, 1929, and see generally representative works

Howard Odum's Southern Regions, 11, p. 277, 22, p. 322, 23, p. 325 - Biography and Index of collection of papers and additional biographical material at The Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina, Wilson Library, including correspondence to and from W. J. Cash, (see Series 1, 1929-folders 196-197)

Tom Heflin, Ala., 13, p. 284 - Biography

Huey Long, La., 13, p. 284, 287 - Biography and Further discussion; see also excerpts from My First Days in the White House, by Huey P. Long, 1935, or F.D.R. as Secretary of the Navy, Borah at State, Hoover at Commerce, and Al Smith as Director of Budget...

Zebulon Baird Vance of N.C., 13, p. 284 - Biography

Ham, 14, pp. 289, 291 - Biography

Cyclone Mack, 14, pp. 289, 291 - See, e.g., "Religion in the Raw: Cyclone Mack in Burke County (N.C.), August-September, 1920", by Edward W. Phifer, Jr. in The North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. 48., No. 3, July, 1971

Gypsy Smith, 14, pp. 289, 291 - Biography

Billy Sunday, 14, pp. 289, 291 - Biography

John T. Scopes, 15, p. 292, 25, p. 335 - About trial

Samuel Gompers, 16, p. 296, a founder and first president of A. F. of L. - Biography

William Green, 16, p. 296, successor to Gompers as head of A. F. of L. - Biography

Matthew Woll, 16, p. 296

Textile Bulletin, 16, p. 297, 24, p. 332 - See on microfilm at the University of North Carolina, North Carolina Room, Wilson Library, at call number

Manufacturers' Record, 16, p. 297 - See microfilm at the University of North Carolina Library, at call number

Oswald Garrison Villard, 17, p. 301 - Biography

Virginius Dabney, 17, p. 301, 26, p. 339 - See index of papers at The Special Collections Department of the University of Virginia Library

John Temple Graves, 17, p. 301 - (Mentioned in Memories of Childhood's Slavery Days, by Annie L. Burton, Boston, 1909)

John Sharp Williams, 17, p. 302 - See, e.g., John Sharp Williams, Planter-Statesman of the Deep South, by George Coleman Osborne, Baton Rouge, 1943

Lynching and the Law, Chadbourn, 17, p. 302 - See James Harmon Chadbourn, Chapel Hill, 1933

Commission for Interracial Cooperation, 18, p. 304; III, 8, p. 370 - Discussion and research archive on microfilm at the University of Michigan, and further discussion and Biography of Dr. Mary McLeod Bethune

Southern Association of Women Against Lynching, 18, p. 304, III, 8, p. 370 - Discussion and research archive on microfilm at the University of Michigan; and Biography of founder Jessie Daniel Ames plus additional biographical information; see also earlier Anti-Lynching Bureau

Enquirer-Sun of Columbus, Ga., 18, p. 304 - see brief history

W. E. B. DuBois, 20, p. 315 - (See, e.g., The Souls of Black Folk, Economic Co-operation among Negro Americans and Morals and Manners among Negro Americans; and "The Freedmen's Bureau", "A Negro Schoolmaster in the New South", "Strivings of the Negro People", and "Of the Training of Black Men")

James Weldon Johnson, 20, p. 315 - Biography and Poetry and additional biography and poetry; see other poetry of the Harlem Renaissance; see also Charlotte News article by W. J. Cash, July 26, 1936

George S. Schuyler, 20, p. 315 - Discussion and biography, mocked in "George S. Schuyler Again", and Articles--"Journalism: The Wagon That Broke Down", January, 1966, American Opinion, (John Birch Society publication), and March, 1968, "The Reds and I"

Boss E. H. Crump of Memphis, 21, p. 317 - Biography

William Louis Poteat, 21, p. 321 and the Poole Bill; Biography and photo and writings

John Garrott Brown, 22, p. 322 - (See William Garrot Brown, "The Ku Klux Movement", Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 87, Issue 523, Boston, May, 1901, pp. 634-644) (Forgive Cash the change of Mr. Brown's first name, apparent transposition in the mind of Cash's father's first and middle names.) (See also "The Importance of Political Parties", by William Garrott Brown, Atlantic Monthly, November, 1900, (an always timely article); "The Orator of Secession: A Study of An Agitator", by William Garrott Brown, Atlantic Monthly, May, 1899; The Lower South in American History, by William Garrott Brown, N.Y., 1902; and "William Garrott Brown, A Spokesman of the New South", by Bruce L. Clayton, 1963, the latter monograph in the Special Collections Department, Alabama Collection, Auburn University)

W.A. Dunning at Columbia, 22, p. 322 - see William Archibald Dunning's Biography - (See promotional material for Atlantic Monthly article, "The Undoing of Reconstruction", in The Atlantic Monthly, December, 1900, and The North American Review, December, 1900)

W. L. Fleming of Ala. 22, p. 322 - see Walter Lynwood Fleming's Biography and further biography and representative works

J. W. Garner of Miss., 22, p. 322 - See Reconstuction in Mississippi, N.Y., 1901

J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, N.C., 22, p. 322 - 1878-1961 - U.N.C. professor of history and founder of the Southern Historical Collection; see index of papers at the Southern Historical Collection. (See, e.g., The Diary of Bartlett Yancey Malone, Hamilton as editor)

Dr. Andrew Sledd, Emory, in Atlantic Monthly, 23, p. 323 (See "The Negro: Another View", 1902) (See Biography and photo at The University of Florida; and additional biographical material and excerpts from Sledd's unpublished autobiography -- note in same article material re founding of Belk's department stores in and around Charlotte, N.C. and turn of the century Charlotte information) (See further biographical material)

John Spencer Bassett, 23, p. 323 (See, e.g., History of Slavery in North Carolina, Baltimore, 1899, cited in The Negro Church. Report of a Social Study Made under the Direction of Atlanta University, by W.E.B. DuBois)

Josephus Daniels, 23, 323 - Biography

Enoch M. Banks, U. of Fla., The Independent, 23, p. 324

Thomas Nelson Page, 23, 325 (See, e.g., Social Life in Old Virginia and The Burial of the Guns)

Ellen Glasgow, 23, 325 Biography -(See, e.g., The Deliverance: A Romance of the Virginia Tobacco Fields and Virginia)

James Joyce, 23, 325 (See, e.g., Ulysses)

Irving Babbitt, 23, 325 - Biography

T.S. Eliot, 23, 325 - Poetry and biography, commentary on "The Waste Land", Poems, and The Sacred Wood

Rupert Vance, U.N.C., 23, p. 325 - Index to papers at University of North Carolina Southern Historical Collection

E. C. Branson, U.N.C., 23, p. 326 - See Eugene Cunningham Branson's representative works

Dr. Carl Taylor, N.C.S., 23, p. 326

Clarence Cason, 90º in the Shade, 23, p. 326, 26, p. 338 - Biography

Henry Adams on Roony Lee, 23, p. 326

George Jean Nathan, 24, p. 327 - Biography

Aldous Huxley, 24, p. 331 - Biography - (See, e.g., Crome Yellow, 1921)

Michael Arlen, 24, p. 331 - Biography

Warner Fabian, 24, p. 331

Carl Carmer's Stars Fell on Alabama, quote, 24, p. 329, N.Y., 1934 - short biography and critique excerpts

Tatum Committee of N.C., 25, p. 333

Bible Crusaders of America, Fla., 25, p. 333

Bishop James Cannon, 25, p. 335 - Biography, discussion of Anti-Saloon League, and index of papers at Duke University

Ward Greene, 25, p. 335

K.K.K. and comparison to Nazis, 25, pp. 335-337 - See "The Ku Klux Movement", by William Garrott Brown, Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 87, Issue 523, Boston, May, 1901, pp. 634-644; see also "Testimony Taken by the Joint Select Committee [of Congress] to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States, Alabama, Volume X," Government Printing Office, Washington, 1872. (Full testimony from this volume begins at page 1405 of linked text, to which the reader will have to navigate backwards from the above-linked page 1487.) See also "Volume IX" (see also pages 729, 731, 868, 869, 920, 952, 1005, 1007, 1198, 1232, 1238, 1259, 1266, 1273, 1284, 1292, and 1305); "Mississippi, Vol XI", (see also page 142), and "Volume XII", (see also pages 856, 858, 1156, and 1159-1165, (note that "J.Q.C. Lamar" mentioned in the disturbance at pp. 1160-61 is actually L.Q.C. Lamar, (see Vol. XI, p. 239), a practicing lawyer at the time in Oxford, who would, having originally opposed secession but wound up drafting the Mississippi ordinance of secession in 1861, in 1873 be elected to Congress, in 1877 to the Senate, serve as Grover Cleveland's Secretary of Interior until 1888 when Cleveland appointed him to the United States Supreme Court--one of only two Democrats, (the other being Fuller, C.J., also in 1888), so appointed between 1863 and 1893--where he served until his death in 1893, recognized in the end as a strong proponent of North-South reconciliation--(but query was this so-called reconciliation, as he voted with the unanimous Court on the now well-known (should-be, anyway) McPherson v Blacker States' rights case of 1892, which laid the groundwork for the non-unanimous, better-known Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, (after Lamar, J., deceased), the type of reconciliation birthed in the closing scenes of "Birth of a Nation"?) "Florida, Volume XIII"; "Georgia, Volume VI", (see also page 583), and "Volume VII", (see also page 848); "South Carolina, Volume V", (see also pages 1284, 1373, 1374, 1460, 1849, and 1945), "Volume IV" (see also pages 882, 883, and 948), and "Volume III" (see also pages 277, 281, 327, 329, and 385); and "North Carolina, Volume II", (see also page 437) For Cash's further comparison to Nazis, see, e.g., "Europe's Ku Kluckers", Charlotte News, September 5, 1937

Gerald W. Johnson, 26, p. 339 - Wake Forest graduate, friend of Cash, and editorial writer for The Baltimore Sun

Nell Battle Lewis, 26, p. 339 - Editorial writer for Raleigh News and Observer; see, e.g., "Nell Battle Lewis (1893-1956) and the New Southern Woman", by Darden Asbury Pyron, in Perspectives on the American South, N.Y., 1985 and "South-Saver: Nell Battle Lewis in the 1920's", by Linda Williams Sellars, Master's Thesis, U.N.C., 1984; see also "Incidentally", by Nell Battle Lewis, Raleigh News and Observer, December 14, 1941 re Cash's posthumous receipt of Mayflower Cup

Douglas Freeman, Va., 26, p. 339 - Biography

Louis Jaffe, Va., 26, p. 339

Julian Harris, Ga., 26, pp. 339, 340 - (1874-1963) See, e.g., Julian Harris and the Columbus Enquirer-Sun: The Consequences of Winning the Pulitzer Prize, by Gregory C. Lisby, Columbia, S.C., 1988

Grover Hall, Ala., Montgomery Advertiser, 26, pp. 339, 340

Edwin McNeil Poteat, S.C., 26, p. 339 - Biography and index of papers at University of North Carolina Southern Historical Collection

Carter Glass, Va., 26, p. 339 - Biography

Oscar Underwood, Ala., 26, p. 340 - Biography

Thomas W. Hardwick, Ga., 26, p. 340 - (1872-1944) - Congressman, 1903-14, Senator, 1914-19, Governor, 1921-23 - (See mention re interim Senate appointment of Georgia liberal Democrat, Rebecca Ann Felton, 1922, the first female Senator in U.S. history, upon the death of anti-Semitic, anti-Catholic, and race-baiting Senator Thomas E. Watson (see index of papers on Watson at U.N.C. Southern Historical Collection)

William Louis Poteat, Harry Woodburn Chase 26, p. 341 and the Poole Bill

Frank Porter Graham, U.N.C., 26, p. 341, III, 9, p. 372 - Index to papers at University of North Carolina Southern Historical Collection, photo

Book III, Chapter III

Of the Great Blight--And New Quandaries

United Textile Workers of America, 1, p. 345; 12, p. 387 - See "The War in the South", by W. J. Cash, American Mercury, February, 1930

Fred Beal, 1, p. 346; 4, p. 355 - See "The War in the South", by W. J. Cash, American Mercury, February, 1930 - See also Gastonia, 1929, The Story of the Loray Mill Strike, by John A. Salmond, Chapel Hill, 1995, and "Gastonia, 1929, The Loray Mill Strike", by Dan McCurry and Carolyn Ashbaugh, in Southern Exposure, Vol. 1, Nos. 3 & 4, Winter, 1974

George Pershing, 1, p. 346 -See "The War in the South", by W. J. Cash, American Mercury, February, 1930

National Textile Workers' Union, 1, p. 346 - See "The War in the South", by W. J. Cash, American Mercury, February, 1930

William Louis Poteat, 4, p. 354 and the Poole Bill

Harry Woodburn Chase, U.N.C., 4, p. 354 and the Poole Bill

Nell Battle Lewis, 4, p. 354 - Editorial writer for Raleigh News and Observer; see, e.g., "Nell Battle Lewis (1893-1956) and the New Southern Woman", by Darden Asbury Pyron, in Perspectives on the American South, N.Y., 1985 and "South-Saver: Nell Battle Lewis in the 1920's", by Linda Williams Sellars, Master's Thesis, U.N.C., 1984; see also "Incidentally", by Nell Battle Lewis, Raleigh News and Observer, December 14, 1941 re Cash's posthumous receipt of Mayflower Cup

Chief O. F. Aderholdt, Gastonia strike-riot, 4, p. 354; 13, p. 388 - See "The War in the South", by W. J. Cash, American Mercury, February, 1930 - See also Gastonia, 1929, The Story of the Loray Mill Strike, by John A. Salmond, Chapel Hill, 1995, and "Gastonia, 1929, The Loray Mill Strike", by Dan McCurry and Carolyn Ashbaugh, in Southern Exposure, Vol. 1, Nos. 3 & 4, Winter, 1974

Ella Mae Wiggins, killed striker at Gastonia, 4, p. 355 - See "The War in the South", by W. J. Cash, American Mercury, February, 1930 - See also Gastonia, 1929, The Story of the Loray Mill Strike, by John A. Salmond, Chapel Hill, 1995, and "Gastonia, 1929, The Loray Mill Strike", by Dan McCurry and Carolyn Ashbaugh, in Southern Exposure, Vol. 1, Nos. 3 & 4, Winter, 1974

Ward, the iron-maker, 5, p. 358 - exemplar

Wagner Labor Relations Act, 6, p. 364; 13, p. 389, 391; 14, p. 394 - History and Biography of Senator Robert Wagner

WPA, 6, p. 366; 17, p. 404; 18, p. 407-410 - History

old White Supremacy ritual, 8, p. 370 - See "Red Shirt days"

NRA., 8, p. 371; 12, p. 385-387 - History

Howard Odum's Southern Regions, 9, pp. 372-373 - Biography and Index of collection of papers and additional biographical material at The Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina, Wilson Library, including correspondence to and from W. J. Cash, (see Series 1, 1929-folders 196-197)

Rupert Vance's Human Factors in Cotton Culture, and Human Geography of the South, 9, p. 373 - Index to papers at University of North Carolina Southern Historical Collection

These Are Our Lives, Federal Writers' Project, 9, p. 373 - (See History of U.N.C. Press)

South, South, Southern--South, South, Southern, 9, pp. 372-373 - See Caso de Homicidio or Felo de Se

Virginius Dabney, Richmond Times-Dispatch, 9, p. 373 - See index of papers at The Special Collections Department of the University of Virginia Library

Wagner-Van Nuys Anti-Lynching Bill, 9, p. 373

Senator Carter Glass, 9, p. 373 - Biography

Senator Harry Flood Byrd, 9, p. 373 - Biography

Jonathan Daniels, 9, p. 373; A Southerner Discovers the South, 10, p. 379 - Biography and index to papers at University of North Carolina Southern Historical Collection

J. E. Dowd, 9, p. 373 - See biographical material

Cameron Shipp, 9, p. 374 - See Charlotte News History; Mentioned. It should be pointed out that Cash insisted that Cam Shipp write the review of The Mind of the South for the Charlotte News because he felt "no one else on the paper will do it justice". By 1941, Shipp was living near Los Angeles and working as a Hollywood publicity agent, had introduced Mary to Cash, and had been instrumental in having Cash hired by the News while Shipp edited what was considered one of the better book pages in the Carolinas, if not the whole of the South. Perhaps, better than anyone else outside Cash's family, Shipp understood Cash; he was probably his truest friend--and probably because he was not only sensitive and intelligent but moreover because he knew how to make Cash laugh at something other than just himself and because he knew that Dr. Ca-ashe was not truly some poor, crumpled, lonesome vagabond more in need of a psychiatrist than a typewriter, but rather realized his art and understood him as a thoughtful, sensitive individual who was at heart nothing more nor less than a kindly, disciplined teacher of both those who had learned their lessons well in one discipline or another, but, for want of time or proper and patient instruction, missed some others, as well as those who, when they were younger, were simply a little groggy or hard of hearing or both.

Richmond News-Leader, Norfolk Virginian-Pilot, Montgomery Advertiser, 9. p. 374

John Temple Graves II, 9, p. 374 - See Picture Gallery at this site, "1941, Review"

Osborne Zuber, 9, p. 374

Birmingham Age-Herald, and Birmingham News, 9, p. 374

Atlanta Constitution and Atlanta Journal, 9, p. 374

Barren Ground, by Ellen Glasgow, 10, p. 374 - Biography and see, e.g., Voice of the People

James Branch Cabell, Poictesme, Lichfield, Sill cycles, Colonel Rudolph Musgrave, Jurgen, Florian de Puysange, Horvendile, 10, p. 375 - See The Rivet in Granfather's Neck and Jurgen

H. L. Mencken, "The Sahara of the Bozart", 10, p. 375 - See Prejudices, Second Series; see also Prejudices, First Series

Thomas Dixon, The Clansman, 10, p. 375

The Birth of a Nation, 10, p. 375 - First full-length feature film ever produced, based on Thomas Dixon's The Leopard's Spots and The Clansman. The film caused riots throughout the country upon its release in 1915 and ultimately led to the re-birth of the Klan in all its previous violent sickness. Adolf Hitler is said to have marveled at the film and counted it one of his favorites, studying its seemingly mesmeric mass effect closely and later suggesting the style to Leni Riefenstahl for her equally white-trash inspired "Triumph of the Will", the rat-like Nazi boot-beat of 1934. A climactic scene in "Birth of a Nation" has the sub-title, "North and South united once again in Aryan brotherhood against the negro party." At the behest of slick talk by the racist reverend and novelist, Shelby, N.C. native Thomas Dixon, the film was previewed before a joint session of Congress, the Supreme Court and President Woodrow Wilson in the Capitol shortly before public release; thereafter, Wilson lent his endorsement boldly stated in the title credits. Later, however, after the film's effects became apparent, Wilson recanted his remarks and stated his public remorse at having made them. The film, nevertheless, still to this day unabashedly displays them. Dixon had attended Davidson College near Charlotte, N.C. for a year with Wilson and they became friends. At the suggestion of the film's director, D.W. Griffith, later co-founder with the Pickfords of United Artists, Dixon asked Wilson for an audience with crusty, conservative Chief Justice Edward White of Louisiana. Wilson afforded the necessary letter of introduction but warned that White had little use for the trashy shorts being produced then in Hollywood. White lived up to Wilson's warning and showed Dixon the door very quickly; but, the story goes, Dixon quickly mentioned that the film depicted the great heroic missions of the fallen Brotherhood of Southerners in the War Between the States and then, in its second half, the glorious after-fight Crusade by that venerable old Southern Order, the Ku Klux Klan, of which Dixon's uncle and dedicatee of The Clansman was a glorious Rodomontading Blade. White, summoning up heroic storied memories of his daddy's Klan days, then quickly beckoned Dixon back and within a short while the Grand Wizard's Concocted Showing was arranged. With that first huge success which the film achieved in both the North and the South, it is no wonder that Hollywood as we know it persisted thereafter for decades in its racist and paternalistic depictions of African-Americans which, for all occasional Johnny-come-lately--though better late than never--exceptions to the contrary especially in the 1960's, continued well into the early 1980's. Query whether Cash had partially in mind this film's depiction of a false and sentimental history and its spawn of hand-wringing exuberance and tears in his fellow Southerners (not to mention Northerners) which he saw in his adolescence when on the second page of The Mind of the South he stated, "...[T]he peculiar history of the South has so greatly modified it from the general American norm that, when viewed as a whole, it decisively justifies the notion that the country is--not quite a nation within a nation, but the next thing to it." And if you ever happen by Shelby, N.C., take a long hard look at the winged-sun repeatedly embossed on the facade of the old Masonic temple off the southeast corner from the old Cleveland County Courthouse (now the County Hall of Fame); then read herein Cash's spring, 1928 "Moving Row" columns written for The Charlotte News and his fall, 1928 editorials written as managing editor of the Cleveland Press in Shelby, his stabs at the Southern Orders-Bastion; and finally take out some old photos of the Nazi death camps and ponder the terrible power which trashily written, literalist, sentimental books and syrupy "wholesome" films have on the mind at large. One might also ponder in the process why the never-repentant Thomas Dixon is today prominently enshrined in the Cleveland County Hall of Fame, not far from that stone-frozen-in-his-tracks old Confederate glaring ever-watchful, musket at arms, into the Bloody Void of Death and without any understanding of the blind justice and irony conveyed by the words beneath him, "Lest We Forget". But "Cloud-Cuckoo-Town" is not a place, a town, a county, a state, or a region. And it certainly is not Shelby. It is rather a state of mind, compounded in groups of individuals, and, at certain times, may be found anywhere. See additional history of film

Elizabeth Madox Roberts, The Time of Man, 10, p. 376 - Biography

Julia Peterkin, 10, p. 376 - See, e.g., Scarlet Sister Mary

Dubose Heyward, 10, p. 376 - Biography; See, e.g., Porgy

Laurence Stallings, What Price Glory?, 10, p. 376 - Biography; see also Maxwell Anderson

Frances Newman, 10, p. 376 - See, e.g., The Hard-Boiled Virgin

Paul Green, In Abraham's Bosom, 10, p. 376 - Biography and further biographical material; see also "On Carolina's Past", by W.J. Cash, Charlotte News, May 8, 1938

Professor Koch and the Carolina Playmakers, 10, p. 376 - see brief history of Carolina Playmakers and photo, and, at the University of Miami collection, index to papers and biographical material on Frederick Koch, and students Thomas Wolfe, Maxwell Anderson, and Paul Green

Conrad Aiken, 10, p. 376 - Biography and writings and "The House of Dust"

Emily Clark's Reviewer, 10, p. 376

Gerald W. Johnson, 10, p. 376 - Wake Forest graduate, friend of Cash, and editorial writer for The Baltimore Sun

Roark Bradford, 10, p. 376 - Biography

Evelyn Scott, 10, p. 376 - Biographical material and index of papers at the University of Tennessee; see also Iconoclast of Charm, by W. J. Cash, Charlotte News, October 24, 1937

W. E. Woodward, 10, p. 376

Isa Glenn, 10, p. 376

Maristan Chapman, 10, p. 376

Clement Wood, 10, p. 376

Thomas Wolfe, Eugene Gant, 10, p. 376-379 - See Look Homeward, Angel - 1900–1938, American novelist, b. Asheville, N.C., grad. Univ. of North Carolina, 1920, M.A. Harvard, 1922. An important 20th-century American novelist, Wolfe wrote four mammoth novels, which, although highly autobiographical, present a sweeping picture of American life. He was the son of William Oliver Wolfe, a stonecutter, and Julia Westall Wolfe, a boardinghouse keeper and speculator in real estate. Wolfe’s early, insistent efforts to become a playwright met with frustration and failure. In 1924 he became an instructor at New York Univ., teaching there until 1930; thereafter he wrote mostly in New York City or abroad. During the late 1920s he was closely associated with Aline Bernstein (the “Esther Jack” of his novels), a noted theatrical designer, who was a major influence in his adult life. In 1929, under the editorial guidance of Maxwell Perkins, he published his first novel, Look Homeward, Angel. After the appearance of its sequel, Of Time and the River (1935), he broke with Perkins and signed a contract with Harper & Brothers, with Edward Aswell as his editor. Wolfe died at 38 from complications following pneumonia. Aswell arranged from the material left at Wolfe’s death two novels—The Web and the Rock (1939) and You Can’t Go Home Again (1940)—and a volume of stories and fragments, The Hills Beyond (1941). Wolfe’s other publications include From Death to Morning (1935), a collection of short stories; and The Story of a Novel (1936), a record of how he wrote his second book. Wolfe’s works compose a picture, left somewhat incomplete by his premature death. They describe the life of a youth from the rural South through his education to his career in New York City as a teacher and writer. Wolfe’s major theme was almost always himself—his own inner and outer existence—his gropings, his pain, his self-discovery, and his endless search for an enduring faith. He was obsessed by memory, time, and location, and his novels convey a brilliant sense of place. His writing is characterized by a lyrical and dramatic intensity, by the weaving and reweaving of a web of sensuous images, and by rhapsodic incantations. 1 See his letters, ed. by E. Nowell (1956); his letters to A. Bernstein, ed. by S. Stutman (1983); biographies by A. Turnbull (1967), N. F. Austin (1968), and D. H. Donald (1987); studies by R. S. Kennedy (1962), L. Field (1988), and J. L. Idol, Jr. (1987). --Note from Columbia Encyclopedia , Sixth Edition, 2001. See also "His Sister Knew Tom Wolfe Well", by W. J. Cash, Charlotte News, July 30, 1939

William Faulkner, 10, p. 376-378 - 1897–1962, American novelist, b. New Albany, Miss., one of the great American writers of the 20th cent. Born into an old Southern family named Falkner, he changed the spelling of his last name to Faulkner when he published his first book, a collection of poems entitled The Marble Faun, in 1924. Faulkner trained in Canada as a cadet pilot in the Royal Air Force in 1918, attended the Univ. of Mississippi in 1919–20, and lived in Paris briefly in 1925. In 1931 he bought a pre–Civil War mansion, “Rowanoak,” in Oxford, Miss., where he lived, a virtual recluse, for the rest of his life. As a writer Faulkner’s primary concern was to probe his own region, the deep South. Most of his novels are set in Yoknapatawpha county, an imaginary area in Mississippi with a colorful history and a richly varied population. The county is a microcosm of the South as a whole, and Faulkner’s novels examine the effects of the dissolution of traditional values and authority on all levels of Southern society. One of his primary themes is the abuse of blacks by the Southern whites. Because Faulkner’s novels treat the decay and anguish of the South since the Civil War, they abound in violent and sordid events. But they are grounded in a profound and compassionate humanism that celebrates the tragedy, energy, and humor of ordinary human life. The master of a rhetorical, highly symbolic style, Faulkner was also a brilliant literary technician, making frequent use of convoluted time sequences and of the stream of consciousness technique. He was awarded the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature. His best-known novels are The Sound and the Fury (1929), As I Lay Dying (1930), Sanctuary (1931), Light in August (1932), Absalom, Absalom! (1936), The Unvanquished (1938), The Hamlet (1940), Intruder in the Dust (1948), Requiem for a Nun (1951), A Fable (1954; Pulitzer Prize), The Town (1957), The Mansion (1959), and The Reivers (1962; Pulitzer Prize). In addition to novels Faulkner published several volumes of short stories including These 13 (1931), Go Down, Moses (1942), Knight’s Gambit (1949), and Big Woods (1955); and collections of essays and poems. 1 See the reminiscences of his brother, John (1963); biographies by H. H. Waggoner (1959) and J. Blotner (2 vol., 1974, repr. 1984); studies by R. P. Adams (1968), L. G. Leary (1973), and J. W. Reed, Jr. (1973); F. J. Hoffman and O. W. Vickery, ed., William Faulkner: Three Decades of Criticism (1960).--Note from Columbia Encyclopedia , Sixth Edition, 2001. See also "Realists Are Haunted By Personal Devils", by W. J. Cash, Charlotte News, November 17, 1935, Cash's first book-page article for the News

Erskine Caldwell's Tobacco Road, Ty Ty Walden, Jeeter Lester, 10, p. 376-378 - 1903–87, American author, b. White Oak, Ga. His realistic and earthy novels of the rural South include Tobacco Road (1933), God’s Little Acre(1933), This Very Earth (1948), and Summertime Island (1969). Among his volumes of short stories are Jackpot (1940) and Gulf Coast Stories (1956). With his first wife, Margaret Bourke-White, he published You Have Seen Their Faces (1937), about Southern sharecroppers. 1 See E. T. Arnold, ed., Conversations with Erskine Caldwell (1988); biography by D. B. Miller (1995); study by J. E. Devlin (1984).--Note from Columbia Encyclopedia , Sixth Edition, 2001. See also "Caldwell, Faulkner Romantic", by W.J. Cash, Charlotte News, November 26, 1939

Theodore Dreiser, 10, p. 378 - Biography; see, e.g., Sister Carrie and The Financier

Ruth Suckow, 10, p. 378 - Biography and index of papers at the University of Iowa and index of letters

Wolfe, Gulliverian, escape from Never-Never Land, 10, p. 379

Jonathan Daniels, A Southerner Discovers the South, 10, p. 379 - See also "Jonathan Daniels Discovers New England", by W. J. Cash, Charlotte News, May 19, 1940

Lillian Smith and Paula Snelling, The North Georgia Review, 10, p. 379 - Biography of Lillian Smith and other biographical information; also see origin of the title "Strange Fruit" (Genesis is a good place to start, too, not neglecting the phrase, "of good and evil". Does it say that we are born into "original sin"--a rather judgmental state of affairs, after all--or does it rather more positively assert that we, each of us, are born into the Garden?--at least, until the trouble starts and we find "we know" who's who, alright. Those of higher learning might note in this regard the ultimate wisdom in the doctrine of the "fruit of the poisonous tree" as it relates to something called the Exclusionary Rule. Knowing of it. --Therein lies the rub.) In early 1941, W. J. Cash became an early reader of a portion of the manuscript for Strange Fruit, then without a publisher, and he thereafter told Ms. Smith that she must get it published for it was "powerful stuff". See also "Pseudopodia", by W. J. Cash, Charlotte News

Agrarians, Fugitive poets, at Vanderbilt, 11, pp. 380-381 - See Biography of Robert Penn Warren

John Crowe Ransom, 11, pp. 380-381 - Biography (See, e.g., Poems about God)

Allen Tate, 11, pp. 380-381 - (See, e.g., Ode to the Confedereate Dead)

Donald Davidson, 11, pp. 380-381 - Papers and biography at Vanderbilt University

Thomas Nelson Page, 11, p. 380 - (See, e.g., Marse Chan)

I'll Take My Stand, 11, p. 380, 382-383 - see Agrarians

Cloud-Cuckoo-Town, 11, p. 380 - (See The Birds, by Aristophanes)

Theocritean idyl, 11, p. 380 - See Biography of Theocritus - See, e.g., "The Fifteenth Idyll"

Dr. John Donne, "esoteric poems" and "To His Mistress Going to Bed", 11, p. 380-381

Ferdinand Brunetiere, 11, p. 381 - Biography

Hilaire Belloc, 11, p. 381 - Biographical material and writings; see also "Mr. Hilaire Belloc Argues Grandly Athwart Modern Religious Pattern", by W. J. Cash, Charlotte News, March 8, 1936

Gilbert Chesterton, 11, p. 381 - Biography and further biographical material; and writings

Paul Elmer Moore, 11, p. 381

Norman Foerster, 11, p. 381

Bishop Wilberforce, 11, p. 381 - Biography and photo and sketch; see, e.g. "On Darwin's Origin of the Species" and see paper on the debate between T.H. Huxley and Wilberforce re Darwin at Oxford, June 30, 1860

Harper, Dew, and Company, 11, p. 381-382 - See Chancellor William Harper of S.C., mentioned in Journal of the Senate of S.C., 1863; Professor Thomas Roderick Dew of Virginia, Essay on Slavery; see A Digest of the Laws, Customs, Manners, and Institutions of the Ancient and Modern Nations, 1853; see also summary of Dew's view, and lecture on Dew with mention of Harper

Sherwood Anderson, 11, p. 382 - Biography; see, e.g., Winesburg, Ohio

American Review, 11, p. 382 - Allen Tate as editor.

John Donald Wade, Ga., 11, p. 382

Allen Tate's The Fathers, 11, p. 383 - See, e.g., Ode to the Confedereate Dead

Caroline Gordon's None Shall Look Back, 11, p. 383 - Tate's wife - Biography

Stark Young's So Red the Rose, 11, p. 383 - (See, e.g., Guinevere, A Play in Five Acts) (See also "Eugene O'Neil", by Stark Young, a review in The New Republic, November 15, 1922)

Herbert Agar, Louisville Courier-Journal, 11, p. 383-384 - See, e.g., Pursuit of Happiness: The Story of American Democracy, Boston, 1938

Progress, 11, p. 384

Francis Gorman of U.T.W.A., 12, p. 387

"flying squadrons", 12, p. 387-388

Textile Workers' Organizing Committee of John L. Lewis's C.I.O., 13, p. 389-392, 14, p. 393-394 - Biography of John L. Lewis

Kemp P. Lewis, textile manufacturer in N.C., 13, p. 390

Hanes, 13, p. 390 - see Hanes Hosiery Mills of Winston-Salem, N.C.

Mrs. Partington, 13, p. 390 - See The Life and Sayings of Mrs. Partington, by B. P. Shillaber, 1854 and summary

George L. Googe, spokesman for AFL textile unions, 13, p. 391

Lucy Randolph Mason, descendent of John Randolph of Roanoke, Va., publicity director for T.W.O.C., 13, p. 391

Textile Bulletin, by David Clark, 13, p. 391 - See on microfilm at the University of North Carolina, North Carolina Room, Wilson Library, at call number

N.L.R.B., 14, p. 393 - History

Harry Flood Byrd of Va., 15, p. 396 - Biography

AAA, 15, p. 396 - See history of Agricultural Adjustment Administration

Japan's cotton mills, 16, p. 399

Texas Weekly, published by Peter Molyneux, 16, pp. 399-400

Black Code, 18, p. 409

Rust brothers machine, 18, p. 411

Murder rate in South vs. rest of nation in late 1930's, 19, pp. 413-415; 20, pp. 415-416

Southern Tenant Farmers' Union, 20, p. 418

Wolfe, Faulkner, Caldwell, 21, p. 419

Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind, 21, p. 419 - Biography and other biographical information and photos and for that Hollywindized kind of feel, see virtual tour of Margaret Mitchell's home at "franklymydear.com"; see also "Million Dollar Baby", May 16, 1937. For her obituary, see New York Times, August 17, 1949. Ms. Marsh died after being struck by a car while crossing an Atlanta street on her way to view the movie adaptation of The Canterbury Tales.

U.N.C. Press, 21, p. 420 - History

Cotton Ed Smith, 22, p. 422; 23, p. 425 - Ellison Durant Smith (1864-1944) Senator 1909-44 - Biography

Huey Long, 22, p. 422- Biography and Further discussion; see also excerpts from My First Days in the White House, by Huey P. Long, 1935

Bilbo, Miss., 22, p. 422 - Biography of Theodore Gilmore Bilbo

Robert Rice Reynolds, N.C., 22, p. 422 - 1884-1963 - N.C. Senator 1932-45 - See, e.g., "Italian Hand", Editorial by W. J. Cash, Charlotte News, December 11, 1939, "Paradox", February 17, 1940, "Wire Them!", April 21, 1941, "A Committee", April 22, 1941, and "Payoff", April 26, 1941

Little Ed Rivers of Ga., 22, p. 422 - See Eurith Dickinson Rivers - 1895-1967 - Governor of Georgia, 1937-41 - Biography and other biographical information and summaries of oral history with links to other Georgia governors at Georgia State University

Gene Talmadge, Ga., 22, p. 422 - Biography

Carter Glass, 22, p. 422-423 - Biography

Harry Byrd, 22, p. 422-423 - Biography

Josiah William Bailey, N.C., 22, p. 422; 23, p. 425 - Biography

Bankheads of Ala., 22, p. 423 - Biography of John Hollis Bankhead and Biography of William Brockman Bankhead

Lister Hill, Ala., 22, p. 423 - 1894-1984 - Congressman, 1923-38, Senator, 1938-69 - Biography

Tories, 22, p. 423

Progress, 22, p. 424

Roosevelt's National Emergency Council's, "The Nation's No. 1 Economic Problem", based on Odum, 23, 424 - Biography of Howard Odum and Index of collection of Odum's papers and additional biographical material at The Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina, Wilson Library, including correspondence to and from W. J. Cash, (see Series 1, 1929-folders 196-197); see also "Roosevelt Looks to Odum", by W. J. Cash, Charlotte News, July 17, 1938

Southern States Industrial Council, 23, p. 425

Progress, 23, p. 425

Clarence Poe, Progressive Farmer, 23, p. 425, (1881-1964) - Poe was a self-educated farm boy who from 1897 worked his way up in the ranks of the Progressive Farmer, then based in Raleigh, N.C., to become its owner in 1903 along with Tait Butler, professor of vetinary medicine at Mississippi State University. The magazine moved to Birmingham in 1911. Poe was a proponent of the simplicity of rural life but also believed that to preserve that simplicity greater education must occur for rural dwellers. He favored farm cooperatives, self-ownership of farmland, and independence from large urban influence. By the 1950's he was convinced the family farm was a thing of the past. In 1953, Butler's son, Eugene, took over as president from Poe. See How Farmers Co-Operate and Double Profits, by Clarence Hamilton Poe, 1915; papers at the N.C. Archives, Raleigh. (Information from The Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris, Co-editors, Chapel, 1989)

Governor Maybank, S. C., 23, p. 427 - Burnet Rhett Maybank - 1899-1954 - Governor, 1939-41, Senator 1941-54 - Biographical information and photo

Governor Hugh White, Miss., 23, p. 427 - 1881-1865 - Governor, 1936-40, 1952-56

And for a lively and informative contemporary online look at the South, see The Center for the Study of the American South.

In the process of evaluation and re-evaluation of the book, any serious scholar of Cash must not forget that which is self-evident, that the mind of the South in 2001, as well as the outside perception of the mind of the South, to be fully understood, must incorporate The Mind of the South, and the varied perceptions and uses as well as abuses of it through the decades. For the book itself, taught for six decades in sociology, English and history departments of leading universities and colleges not only in the South but in the North as well, and especially during the period not coincidentally beginning in 1954, when the book first went to paperback, through the 1970's, has perforce had its impact on that amorphous cultural synaptic-protoplasm we are prone to call the cultural mind, just as the book has had its impact on individual minds constituting that cultural pattern, shaping the contours and inner recesses, its "common sense" perception of itself and the world outside itself and simultaneously and consequently how the world outside perceives it, impressing then their own minds upon its efforts during the same period since the book's publication. So to understand the book better is also inevitably to understand some of the changes wrought since the publication of the book--changes wrought sometimes in blood, sometimes at the ballot box, sometimes in the public square, sometimes in courtrooms, sometimes in progressive churches, sometimes the result of all of these forces acting at once--but always and in sum in the classroom of free debate, be it of a college of liberal arts or one between a governor and an assistant attorney general of the United States in the wisteria-entwined June high noon Alabama sunlight of 1963.

"Follow the Drinking Gourd..."