The Charlotte News
Saturday, July 3, 1954
Site Ed. Note: The front page reports from Saigon in Indo-China that French Union troops had withdrawn from Phu Ly this date, abandoning the entire southern third of the Red River Delta to the Vietminh, after three rebel battalions had struck at the location, a key communications center 35 miles south of Hanoi and point of continual skirmishing during the entire eight years of the war. Viet Nam's new Nationalist Premier, Ngo Dinh Diem—to be assassinated with his brother in the military coup of November 2, 1963—, told the French high command earlier that "grave political consequences" would follow withdrawal of French forces from the Delta and said in a communiqué that he had "vigorously protested" the withdrawal as soon as he learned of it. The Vietnamese Government considered the evacuation provisional, dictated by the exigencies of the moment, and believed it would be redressed in the near future, Premier Ngo, known in the U.S. as "Diem", calling on the Vietnamese to remain calm in the face of the evacuation, which left two million Delta inhabitants under the control of the Vietminh. The acting Indo-China military commander, General Raoul Salan, stated that the evacuation was only a military operation, permitting the French high command to prepare a "violent riposte in case of need" and that the game was "far from lost". He said during a press conference the previous night in Hanoi that Communist Chinese aid to the Vietminh had increased in the previous few months from 3,000 tons to between 6,000 and 7,000 tons of supplies.
Senate Majority Leader William Knowland of California indicated this date that the Republican leadership in Congress was considering limiting foreign aid appropriations to six months, to force a reappraisal of the nation's foreign problems in January, adding that he believed it was safe to assume that there would be some action during the current session of Congress which would resist any effort at admission to the U.N. of Communist China, indicating that another possibility would be an amendment to the foreign aid authorization bill to withdraw U.S. financial support from the U.N. were any nation which had been declared an aggressor, as Communist China in Korea, admitted to membership. Senate Minority Leader Lyndon Johnson had called for the withdrawal of the U.S. from the U.N. in the event of admission of Communist China, indicating in debate on foreign policy the previous day that the nation's foreign policy was "at the crossroads". Secretary of State Dulles, meeting in executive session the previous day with the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, reportedly refused to commit the Administration to withdrawal from the U.N., while stating his continued adamant opposition to admission of Communist China. An unnamed high Government official said that the Administration was working behind the scenes to line up support in the General Assembly to prevent the issue of Communist China's admission to the body from coming to a vote.
In Guatemala City, it was reported that insurgent rebel leader Col. Carlos Castillo Armas was planning to visit the capital to discuss his role in the new anti-Communist military junta government, but dissatisfaction within the ranks of the "liberation army" over the settlement had dimmed the triumph of the occasion, with most of the men, he conceded, being dissatisfied with the agreement reached in San Salvador the previous day, whereby a five-man ruling military junta would include the present three-man junta and two persons, including Col. Castillo, of the insurgent rebels, with Col. Elfego Monzon, current leader of the extant junta, continuing for 15 days in the leadership role, pending election of a permanent leader. Col. Castillo said that top lieutenants in the liberation army wanted to push ahead with the rebellion until the Guatemalan Army surrendered unconditionally, but indicated his satisfaction with the settlement ending the two-week civil war with victory over the Communists, expressing confidence that his followers would remain with him.
The Senate approved the previous day the President's tax plan, by a vote of 63 to 9, following five days of heated debate and two months of work on the 875-page tax overhaul measure, after the Senate Finance Committee had added 430 pages of amendments, the first comprehensive tax revision since 1876. The House had already passed a version of the bill, including nearly all of the relief provisions sought by the Administration. The Senate defeated four separate attempts to add a general income tax reduction to the bill, strongly opposed by the Treasury Department because of its entailing heavy loss of revenue at a time of deficit spending. The two bills would need to be reconciled in conference.
Senator George Aiken of Vermont, chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee, said that the Senate was well on its way to completing a farm bill which the President could accept. But the House had approved the previous day legislation embodying the flexible price supports, which the farm state Senators and the Senate as a whole had opposed, retaining the 90 percent of parity fixed price on five basic crops, wheat, corn, cotton, rice and peanuts, which the House, by a vote of 228 to 170, made subject to variable price supports between 82.5 and 90 percent of parity, causing Senator Milton Young of North Dakota, a leading proponent of the high fixed price support faction, to express "great surprise". The House vote was seen as a victory for the Administration's flexible support principle, even though Secretary of Agriculture Ezra Taft Benson and the President had supported a 75 to 90 percent flexible range. The compromise at 82.5 percent was offered with the backing of House Republican leaders. Continued fixed-price support of tobacco was not at issue as the Administration had already agreed to accept the 90 percent parity level because of special problems with tobacco.
In Manila, it was reported that rescue squads sifted the rubble in two earthquake-wrecked cities for dead and injured this date, as lighter aftershocks occurred throughout the central Philippines. Broken communication lines made it impossible to obtain an accurate picture of the casualties and property damage in southern Luzon, where the previous day's quake had caused havoc, with the latest reliable figures showing 12 persons known to be dead, four missing, 24 seriously injured and 100 treated for minor injuries, after earlier police reports had stated that 20 were believed to have been killed in Sorsogon, now revised to state that eight were known dead in that city, with four others in Bacon.
In Utica, N.Y., a special Air Force team spearheaded an investigation of the wreckage of a jet fighter plane which had crashed nearby the previous day, killing four persons on the ground, three inhabitants of an automobile and one occupant of a house, while the pilot and radar observer on the plane were able to bail out safely. None of the rockets aboard the jet had exploded. The crash occurred when two jets had been ordered by radio to check on an unidentified plane which had entered the area guarded by the air defense operation, after which the pilots became satisfied that the plane was friendly, then headed back to base, at which point a fire erupted in the cockpit of the jet which crashed.
In Detroit, a 61-year old woman, who had been maintained as an inmate in the Michigan mental hospitals for 19 years, had been released, expressing the hope that somebody would want her, saying she was feeling better every second. Her handwritten habeas corpus petition, which she had painstakingly prepared, was granted by a judge after finding the petition in "perfect legal order", leading him to request a lawyer for her. She boarded a plane for New Orleans the previous night, where she had a daughter and ten siblings, having saved the money for the ticket, part of which had come from proceeds of greeting cards which she had made and sold while in the State hospital. Police had arrested her in 1935 during an argument over a debt which she claimed, placing her in the hospital for observation, at which time examining doctors signed affidavits saying that she had a "persecution complex and was irrational", though not testifying in the court proceedings which ordered her confined. She said that everyone who had come to see her had indicated that she should not be confined, that many had said they would help her obtain freedom, but she had waited for years and no help had been forthcoming. She had been placed with patients who were so helpless that they had to be fed, until she complained and they moved her to another ward, stating that at times she was afraid she was going insane in fact. She had once been active in Detroit politics and operated a secretarial service, now wanted to forget the previous 19 years of confinement.
In Dallas, Tex., the queen of the underworld in that city, Maud Lynch, 56, a major pickpocket during Prohibition days, had died the previous night at the hospital after being found ill and half-paralyzed in a cheap walk-up hotel, broke and alone, apparently suffering a stroke. During the roaring Twenties and early Thirties, she had favored black limousines and white fur coats, amassing a fortune, according to police and press, as a prostitute, shoplifter and pickpocket, wearing diamonds worth thousands of dollars, often pawning them when she needed quick cash for a down-and-out pal, male or female. She would pick the pockets, according to police, of wealthy customers lured into her limousine by her apparent affluence and beauty. Her victims, shying away from scandal, rarely appeared as witnesses against her in court. Once, she had discovered that $400 lifted from a West Texas minister had belonged to the congregation and immediately rushed to the police station to return it, though she had stressed that none of it was to go to the preacher, who had come to Dallas "to cavort with women" like her. After the Depression started, she turned to shoplifting and, increasingly, to narcotics. She proclaimed that she liked policemen and one night, when an officer was attacked on a dark street by two hoodlums as she happened by in her limousine, she exited to assist him, and the two were able to apprehend the thugs, one of them badly marked by the fingernails and high heel shoes of the Dallas underworld queen. Police said that she never had an enemy, but had died the previous night without a friend, following hundreds of arrests, thousands of parties, and thousands of victims since her first arrest for shoplifting of pretty lingerie in 1917. One would have thought that Jack Rubenstein, at least, would have befriended her at the end, though maybe he took over where she had left off and so had a motive to be passive in the matter.
As millions of motorists took to the highways for the three-day July 4 holiday, only 22 traffic deaths had thus far been reported in the first 16 hours of the extended weekend, which had begun at 6:00 p.m., Friday. The National Safety Council had estimated that 430 persons would be killed in traffic accidents during the weekend. There had been 434 violent deaths in accidents during the two-day July 4 weekend the previous year, with the record having been set during the three-day weekend of 1949, at 676, and the largest traffic toll having been 366, during the three-day weekend of 1952.
The President and First Lady planned to spend the holiday weekend at Camp David in Maryland, and so would not be present at a large fireworks display to be set off on the grounds of the Washington Monument on July 5. A large fireworks display would occur in the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum the following day, with another large show set for the Rose Bowl in Pasadena on Monday, with expected attendance at each event to be around 80,000 or more. In Texas, traditional July 4 celebrations would include rodeos and cowboy reunions, and at Flagstaff, Ariz., more than 12,000 Indians were in town for three days of ceremonial and powwow rituals. In Detroit, the city would present to Korea a 40-car train loaded with relief and rehabilitation supplies, in celebration of July Fourth.
A little noted item out of Cleveland the following day reported that Dr. Sam Sheppard had initially revived an 18-month old boy through open-chest heart massage after he had been crushed beneath a gas company truck turning around in a driveway, subsequent to which his heart had stopped three minutes following arrival at Bay View Hospital, but that the boy had died nevertheless 20 minutes later while Dr. Sheppard was making a cranial incision to relieve pressure from the internal bleeding. It would be only about 16 hours later, in the early morning of July 4, as reported widely on July 5, that Dr. Sheppard would claim to awaken from a slumber on the couch in the living room after hearing what he thought was a scream from his wife upstairs, ascending the staircase to find his wife, Marilyn, bludgeoned to death in their bedroom, seeing a dark form at the foot of the bed before immediately being hit over the back of the head and knocked unconscious momentarily, upon reviving, seeing the dark figure exit the house, struggling with the man, giving chase onto the adjacent lake beach area, and finally being knocked unconscious a second time, all giving rise to one of the most notorious criminal trials, and eventual reversal of fate, in the country's history after Dr. Sheppard would be charged with his wife's murder at the end of July.
The revival and then loss of the little boy on July 3 was raised briefly by the defense in the 1954 trial, first through cross-examination of the prosecution witness Nancy Ahern, at transcript pages 585-586, the Aherns having visited with the Sheppards on the night of the murder. Defense counsel did not develop further his line of questioning with Mr. Ahern regarding the referenced conversation which his questions of Mrs. Ahern had implied, that Dr. Sheppard had said that he was so upset by the prolonged efforts to revive the child that he could not eat that night, not recalled by Mrs. Ahern. The incident was raised again by Dr. Sheppard during his direct testimony at pages 4628-4632, explaining that the noontime incident, lasting over an hour, extending well beyond the time when the boy's heartbeat ceased the second time, had exhausted him physically and emotionally. The incident, however, was not mentioned in the subsequent trial in 1966, following reversal by the Supreme Court of the 1954 conviction because of the carnival atmosphere pervading the first trial, defeating the basic due process requirement of a fair trial. Perhaps neither side in the second trial thought the incident was sufficiently probative of guilt or supportive of reasonable doubt to outweigh the risk that it might be seen either as a contributing factor to stress that night, exacerbating Dr. Sheppard's irritability in a scenario with the doctor as the murderer, or as a contributing factor to his having been unusually exhausted while he slept, by his account, through the violent murder of his wife by the intruder in the upstairs bedroom, to raise it through hospital personnel on duty at the time. Dr. Sheppard did not take the witness stand during the 1966 trial and presumably neither of the Aherns, who did again testify, recalled the doctor discussing the episode earlier in the day regarding the little boy. But we shall get to that case in due course as it arises, there appearing no report of it in The News until later in the month, shortly before the doctor's arrest.
On the editorial page, "The Haunting Question about Asia" indicates that a large portion of Indo-China was being abandoned to the Communists, paramounting at present the concerns regarding creation of the U.S.-favored SEATO versus the British-favored series of nonaggression pacts with the Communists, or admission to the U.N. of Communist China and U.S. diplomatic recognition thereof, over which Senate Majority Leader William Knowland had threatened to resign his majority leadership and devote his time to getting the U.S. to renounce its membership in the U.N. should such a contingency prevail.
The positive part of the abandonment of Northern Indo-China to the Communists was the immediate preservation of the Western alliance, a rift in which had been caused by the British insistence on not entering the war and the French insistence on ending their heavy losses, which would have left the U.S. alone in continuing the fight. It also meant that the American people would not become bitterly divided, which would have been the case, had the U.S. taken over the war alone, especially coming so soon after the armistice in Korea the previous July.
But there would be lost to the Communists a considerable amount of territory and its strategic materials, though not as bad as once thought with the loss of all of Indo-China. There would also be loss of markets for free Asian countries, such as Japan which depended largely on Indo-China for its rice supply and as an export market. That would lend urgency, however, to the adjustment of trade balances and tariffs to enable Japan to survive.
The largest loss, it posits, would be in confidence in the U.S. Government, which was caught bluffing. While no one in the Government had said flatly that the U.S. would fight to save Indo-China, the inference had been suggested by both Secretary of State Dulles and by Vice-President Nixon, the latter having said in a speech that if the French were to withdraw from Indo-China, he would favor introduction of U.S. troops to avoid loss of the area to the Communists. Now, the leaders of the free world had resigned themselves to the loss at least of Northern Indo-China, prompting the question where the free world would draw the line against Communist aggression.
"Umstead Ready To Lay Down His Fiddle" indicates that Governor William B. Umstead, following more than six weeks of marking time, now appeared ready to announce the appointments to an advisory committee to determine how the state would meet the Brown v. Board of Education decision, holding public school segregation unconstitutional under the Fourteenth Amendment Equal Protection Clause. It suggests that the appointments were long overdue, as fact-finding commissions were in existence in virtually every other Southern state.
It indicates that to resolve the problems would be a time consumptive process, as the information to be assembled would have to meet the different contingencies posed by potential varied outcomes in the implementing order to be provided by the Supreme Court during the next term, beginning in October. Moreover, it indicates that North Carolina had a larger role in public education than most of the other Southern states, being second only to Texas in total expenditures on public schools within the region. In addition, non-whites made up more than 60 percent of the public school population in some eastern counties of the state, while making up as small a proportion as 1.1 percent in a few western highland counties, thus calling for different approaches in different parts of the state. Extremely broad representation would required on the Governor's advisory committee, therefore, with members of both races and men and women from every geographical area of the state to be included, plus a representative group from various walks of life, including lay representatives. It urges that the calm, temperate attitude characterizing the tradition of the state would need to be maintained "in this hour of decision".
"A Good Year in Tax Collections" indicates that the City tax collector, John Mills, had two strikes against him when he began his term a year earlier, following James Armstrong, who had been rated highly as a public official. The newspaper had refrained from commenting on the young new appointee until he had his chance to prove himself, and now, after a year, it rates his performance as having been very good, providing the figures to bolster that opinion.
"Footnote" makes apology for a recent editorial commenting on the first Democratic primary of May 29, in which incumbent State Senator Fred McIntyre had come in second and State Representatives Ernest Hicks and Charles Gillette had failed to win renomination, indicating that the impression had been left by the editorial that the latter two had been among those dividing the delegation, the putative reason for the losses, when both had been in the majority on all issues which had divided the delegation, and so congratulates them on a job well done, even though not winning renomination.
A piece from the Richmond
Times-Dispatch, titled "How To Be a Champion", tells of
a 14-year old boy of Center Square, Pa., who had won the national
spelling bee championship against 56 competitors in the annual
competition held in Washington, the piece beginning with a paragraph
containing nine misspelled words, on which you can test yourself. He
had won against his remaining competitor, an 11-year old boy from
Missouri, who had misspelled uncinated
It suggests that the words rarefy, liquefy, diphtheria, kimono, inoculate, anoint, mercurochrome, liaison, opossum and propeller were words which might have stumped either of the two final competitors.
A lot of people have trouble with a
word as commonly used as embarrass, leaving out an "r",
and, come to think of it, a whole passel of people have difficulty
with "a lot", choosing to combine the two words, not to
mention the oft-misspelled "led" versus "lead"
in the pencil, confusing the lead story with the led train
of thought, and the noun form of "effect" versus the
verbal form of "to effect", as in bringing something
about, in contrast to the otherwise verbal form of "to affect",
as in causal connection, and "to affect", as in putting
on a face or personality, plus "complexion", as opposed
to "complected", not connected, as temptation would
suggest, to produce "complection", more at "crucifixion",
not "crucifiction", appearing, at least in the deific
sense, to be sacrilegious, not "sacreligious", as
temptation again would have it, the latter appearing as a condition
with the sacroiliac. Or the sometimes problematic words with homophonic synizesis, a rare disease which produces, by way of etymological underpinnings, such peculiar results as seize and siege. Well, we could go on…
Drew Pearson indicates that within the Federal Government, the International Joint Commission which handled waterway problems between Canada and the U.S., and the International Boundary Commission regarding preservation of the boundary between Canada and the U.S., were considered the best places in the Government to be employed, as the duties were not arduous, that international boundary not given to war, while the commissioners enjoyed a salary of more than $10,000 per year and an expenses paid annual summer trip to Canada.
The RNC was currently in a quandary, however, as a Chicago lawyer had been appointed to the wrong commission and the Governor of Idaho had been named prematurely to the job the lawyer was supposed to have received, winding up violating a 1909 treaty with Canada and a Presidential order dating back to 1873 and U.S. Grant. He explains the confusion, starting when Senator Everett Dirksen of Illinois had recommended the lawyer for the position of chairman of the International Joint Commission, replacing a retiring former Senator from Kentucky, A. O. Stanley, who had occupied the position for 20 years under the Roosevelt-Truman Administrations. But instead of sending the lawyer's name to the White House, the RNC had recommended the lawyer to become a member of the International Boundary Commission, on which there was no vacancy and, according to the 1909 treaty, required that an engineer be appointed when any vacancy arose because that Commission dealt only with maintaining the boundary. The White House then fired the existing chairman of the Boundary Commission, to create the vacancy and ignored the treaty provision, appointing the Chicago lawyer, upsetting New York politicos who had their eye on the vacancy on the Boundary Commission. In the meantime, Mr. Stanley had become aware that Republicans were after his job on the Joint Commission and prepared a legal brief, contending that he could not be fired from the post. But former Senators Owen Brewster and Ray Willis were beginning to campaign for the post, and Idaho Governor Len Jordan ultimately prevailed, with the White House increasing the salary from $10,600 to $13,500 for the position.
After the latter appointment, someone pointed out the 1873 executive order, prohibiting a Federal official from holding a state position simultaneously, after the Governor was told that he could finish his term through the end of the year while still serving on the Commission. The White House got around the dilemma by removing Governor Jordan from the Joint Commission and holding the vacancy open for six months until his term expired. Mr. Pearson notes that the 1909 treaty with Canada, however, continued to be violated with respect to the Boundary Commission.
Marquis Childs tells of the intention of Prime Minister Churchill, at the earliest opportunity, perhaps by summer's end, to visit Premier Georgi Malenkov in Moscow, to pursue an accommodation with the Communists, his goal before leaving the world stage at age 79. It had been learned from British sources, during the conference at the White House between the President and the Prime Minister the prior weekend, that the latter had made known his determination to take a personal sounding of the top Communists in an effort to prepare the way for a Big Three meeting with the Soviets, a desire Mr. Churchill had made known in numerous speeches during the prior 18 months. He had, however, received no encouragement from either the President or Secretary of State Dulles when raising that prospect.
The American doubts of the wisdom of such a summit meeting included the belief that Premier Malenkov was only one of a triumvirate of those in actual power in Russia, and so dealing with him would not enable agreement as it might have when Stalin had been alive, and that the intra-governmental rivalries in Russia would likely interfere with any modus vivendi, as power over foreign policy was almost entirely in the hands of Foreign Minister V. M. Molotov. Moreover, the President and Secretary Dulles were opposed to any sort of "global deal", whereas Prime Minister Churchill was willing to agree to a realistic partition of the world with a permanent line drawn to separate the Communist and non-Communist hemispheres. The American view, however, was that such an accommodation would confirm the Soviet hold on subjugated peoples who continued to hope for freedom, unacceptable to the U.S. A third basic objection by the U.S. was that no such deal could endure, as the Soviets would only adhere to it as long as it was convenient and would violate it, as surely as Hitler had violated the Munich Pact of 1938 and the Soviet mutual Nonaggression Pact of 1939, when it was to their interest to do so.
The persistence, therefore, of Mr. Churchill in seeking such an understanding tended to widen the differences between the U.S. and Britain, and if he did go through with his determination to have such a conference with Mr. Malenkov, there would be concern on the part of the U.S. that a deal might transpire which would exclude the U.S. Nevertheless, the Prime Minister would have wide support at home for the kind of mission he contemplated, as there was almost a desperate urgency in Britain to avoid the horrors of a potential nuclear war, with Britain on the front lines. There would also be admiration for Mr. Churchill's gallantry and courage as the elder statesman setting off on one more journey to achieve peace.
Doris Fleeson indicates that the President had refused to turn his back on Vice-President Nixon, after having been reminded at his Wednesday press conference that the Vice-President had said in a Wisconsin speech the prior weekend that former Secretary of State Acheson had been responsible for the loss of China to the Communists and thus the Korean War and the problems presently in Indo-China. The President had said in so many words that while he did not attribute to Secretary Acheson the loss of China, he was not going to excommunicate the Vice-President and that everyone was entitled to their opinion.
Ms. Fleeson indicates that the Eisenhower policy of hating the sin while loving the sinner had been a spectacular failure when attempted by Secretary Acheson, but that the President had nevertheless stuck to it. Democrats were indignant over the Vice-President's speech, as their support was being sought for the negotiations between the President and Prime Minister Churchill and Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden. Nevertheless, the President had suggested that if Mr. Nixon were to apologize, it would have to be on his own.
Shortly afterward, the Democrats had furnished the President the winning margin for his 3.5 billion dollar foreign aid bill in the House, with more Democrats than Republicans supporting it, and more Republicans than Democrats opposing it.
The President had repeatedly insisted that his program was the issue of his Administration, and had told RNC chairman Leonard Hall not to use Senator McCarthy in the midterm election campaign, stating again his abhorrence of the Senator's methods. Ms. Fleeson suggests that, regardless of his reasons, the President was now faced with a situation wherein both Republicans and Democrats expected the campaign to be waged along the lines set forth by Mr. Nixon in his speech and were preparing themselves accordingly, suggestive of the problems which the Administration would face in the final month before adjournment for the election campaign recess. Democrats expected a rough campaign and they would be increasingly uncooperative in Administration-favored programs except as affecting foreign policy.
Robert C. Ruark tells of having correspondence with a Mexican doctor who believed in polygamy, that marrying only one woman was contrary to natural law, monogamy, according to the doctor, arising from such illnesses as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, neuroses and schizophrenia. (Mr. Ruark mistakenly describes the latter as a "split personality", when it only refers to a dissociative personality disorder accompanied by hallucinations and usually by clinical paranoia, often confused with the schizoid or split personality disorder, of which the actual number of confirmed cases is very limited, except in horror movies.)
Mr. Ruark decides that the doctor must be right, as he had been married for some time to his wife and had hypertension, arteriosclerosis, neuroses and fully advanced schizophrenia. The latter took the form of delusions of his being married to many women, because only one woman could issue so many orders, and that when he was away from the home, he suffered from the delusion of being married to only one woman. He proceeds to detail, in like fashion, his other maladies arising from his monogamy. He asks whether one had ever walked into a bathroom where one woman was cleaning her unmentionables, that it was "a forest of frills, a Sahara of silk", or whether one had become mixed up in a spring housecleaning or furniture-moving with one woman with her head tied in a towel, inviting the image of two such women providing orders.
He indicates admiration for those men who maintained multiple households and wishes them and the doctor favoring polygamy well. Nevertheless, he concludes that bigamy was the stupidest of all crimes and that a practitioner of it should not be punished by law as he would be punished enough by his hobby.
A letter writer from Marshville indicates that in recent editorials, the newspaper had discussed the failings of the Administration, but not its accomplishments, which included a proposal to amend Taft-Hartley to make it more favorable to labor while the Democrats had opposed it, a reduction in taxes, which the Democrats wanted to make even lower, the ending of the war in Korea, and the Republicans having "the traitors on the run". He indicates that Senator Sam Ervin of North Carolina had opposed an amendment strengthening the Reciprocal Trade Act, as proposed by the Republicans. He wonders whether Southern members of Congress, while professing belief in states' rights, believed in human rights, while keeping the South "under their thumbs since Lincoln, until religion or human rights entered the picture", then following the goat to slaughter, while their voices were "now raised against the New Deal Supreme Court".
A letter writer indicates that a lot of letter writers were indicating that white people would not send their children to public schools with black children or with members of any other race than whites. He urges that as long as people enjoyed freedom in the country, they would have to abide by its laws and rules, and that no individual was big enough to disobey those laws because of personal feelings, regarding it as a "disgrace" for some people to call themselves true Americans while having hatred and animosity toward their fellow human beings.
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