The Charlotte News

Wednesday, April 28, 1954


Site Ed. Note: The front page reports that in the fifth day of hearings on the dispute between the Army and Senator McCarthy, the Senator exploded with violent protests against questions regarding whether Private G. David Schine had hired fellow soldiers to clean his rifle and had told his commander that he was in the Army to modernize and streamline it. The questions had been posed to Secretary of the Army Robert Stevens by the Senate Investigations subcommittee special counsel Ray Jenkins, and Secretary Stevens had responded with some laughter that he had heard of it, prompting loud laughter among spectators in the hearing room. Senator McCarthy then interjected that the questions by Mr. Jenkins were "completely unfair" to Private Schine, that they might create the impression that the questions represented facts, and that they constituted a "smear". He contended that if charges were to be made against the Private, the latter should be made a party to the investigation so that he could have counsel present and cross-examine witnesses. The Senator also said that alleged favors for the Private had been investigated by the Inspector General of the Army and he demanded that the report of same be placed in evidence. Senator Karl Mundt, temporary chairman of the subcommittee during the investigation, ruled that the questions were proper and that Private Schine would be called as a witness in due course. The testimony of Secretary Stevens would continue through the afternoon session.

A transcript of a brief colloquy the previous day between the usual chief counsel of the Investigations subcommittee, Roy Cohn, and the Army's chief counsel, Joseph Welch, is included on the front page, in which Mr. Welch questioned Mr. Cohn regarding the uncropped photograph which Mr. Welch had introduced into evidence the previous day, after a cropped version, showing only Private Schine and Secretary Stevens, had first been introduced by Mr. Jenkins, the uncropped version showing one other person, an Army colonel, and the arm of a fourth person. Mr. Welch asked Mr. Cohn whether Mr. Stevens had a "grim smile" in the photograph, to which Mr. Cohn responded that Mr. Stevens and Mr. Schine were looking at each other. Mr. Welch asked whether Mr. Stevens could just as easily have been looking at the colonel, to which Mr. Cohn responded that Mr. Stevens was looking to his right and Private Schine was looking toward Mr. Stevens. Mr. Welch said that he noticed a slight look of pleasure on the colonel's face, and Mr. Cohn suggested that it was because he might be anticipating a steak dinner they had shortly after the photograph was taken, to which Mr. Welch added that if the colonel was looking forward to a steak dinner, then Private Schine had to be "considering a whole haunch of beef" based on his grin. Mr. Cohn then responded that Mr. Stevens, given the grimness of his face, might have been considering the fact that Senator McCarthy had told him that the hearings showing what was going on in terms of Communist infiltration of the Army would start the following Tuesday after the photograph was taken. No one, incidentally, suggested that anyone in the picture had a "lean and hungry look", which would have dovetailed with the coda to the March 9 broadcast of Edward R. Murrow anent Senator McCarthy. Of course, that could have only properly fit Mr. Cohn and he was not in the picture. Senator McCarthy was not lean.

In Geneva, Russia proposed this date, through Foreign Minister V. M. Molotov, an immediate meeting of representatives of the French Union forces and the Vietminh in Indo-China to discuss evacuation of wounded from the French fortress at Dien Bien Phu, and also suggested that leaders of the Vietminh be invited to participate in the Geneva debate on peace in Indo-China, along with representatives of the U.S., Britain, France, Russia, Communist China and the three Indochinese Associated States, Viet Nam, Laos and Cambodia. With the exception of the Vietminh, the French had proposed the same list. French Foreign Minister Georges Bidault had proposed that the determination of the evacuation of the wounded from the fortress be first decided before determining the participating nations in the talks. Currently, the wounded were being treated in dugout shelters within the fortress as Vietminh guns were blocking French planes from landing to evacuate the wounded. Foreign Minister Chou En-lai of Communist China also demanded this date that all foreign military bases in Asia be abolished and that all foreign troops be withdrawn.

From Hanoi it was reported that the Vietminh had confined their assaults on battered Dien Bien Phu to artillery barrages again this date, amid mounting indications that the rebels might hold off further frontal assaults in the hope of starving out the weary French defenders. Rains from the spring monsoon had turned the fortress into a sea of red mud, bogging down all mechanized movement. A radio broadcast of the enemy indicated that the Vietminh were prepared to await the flooding of the trenches, forcing the French to surrender. The defenders continued to slug it out, nevertheless, against the artillery fire of the Vietminh. The French continued to reinforce the fortress defenses by parachute drop, with more men and supplies having been parachuted despite the rain. The French high command indicated that there had been no important infantry fighting the previous night or early this date, with enemy barrages hitting the headquarters, heart of the fortress, while the French artillery and antiaircraft batteries hit the enemy strongholds within the low-lying hills two to four miles distant.

Vice-President Nixon said this date, before the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in Washington, that "the major aim of this Administration's policy" was to avoid committing U.S. troops in Indo-China or elsewhere, if possible, but that the Administration would not resort to "a policy of weakness or inconsistency" to achieve that aim. He received applause from the 3,000 delegates for the statement. He said that world peace was being threatened by "the international Communist conspiracy", the nation's primary problem, and that unless it were solved, the country might not be around to enjoy the solution of its other problems.

Representative Frederic Coudert of New York proposed this date to deny the President authority to send U.S. troops to Indo-China without prior approval of Congress, telling newsmen that he had discussed the proposal with a number of his colleagues and had found no one opposed to it, but that there was no telling how they would vote after having pressure applied to them. The proposal was made in the form of an amendment to the appropriations bill for the defense budget of 28.6 billion dollars, debate on which would begin this date. The proposal applied only to sending troops to countries which had no mutual defense pacts with the U.S.

The Senate Banking Committee summoned the suspended FHA general counsel, the resigned associate counsel, and the retired FHA deputy commissioner to testify before it regarding the multimillion-dollar scandal in the FHA's loan insurance programs. Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia, head of the joint Committee on Reduction of Nonessential Federal Expenditures, demanded that the Justice Department begin immediate legal proceedings against a fourth ousted FHA official, the former assistant commissioner for rental housing, who, according to Senator Byrd, was "the key official" involved in over-valuations of properties resulting in windfalls to apartment builders of 100 million dollars or more. The official had reported gambling losses of up to $5,000 in a single night, the gambling having first attracted the attention of the FBI, leading to the investigation of the FHA. The official had invoked the Fifth Amendment the previous week and refused to answer questions by the Banking Committee.

The President this date nominated a West Point classmate, retired Lt. General Joseph Swing of San Francisco, to be the commissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, succeeding Argyle Mackey, who would step down to become the deputy commissioner. Attorney General Herbert Brownell, who supervised the I.N.S., part of the Justice Department, had asked Mr. Mackey to remain as deputy. Mr. Mackey had submitted his resignation when the President took office.

In Washington, Comptroller General Lindsay Warren, who was set to retire two days hence, had returned to the job after spending two weeks in Bethesda Naval Hospital where he was being treated after doctors told him he had to quit work. He had served 13 1/2 years of his 15-year term and would retire on his full salary of $17,500 per year. A native of North Carolina, he and his wife would return to Washington, N.C., to re-establish their residence after 30 years in the nation's capital. Mr. Warren had been a Congressman before FDR had named him Comptroller.

In Chicago, two gunmen the previous day were handed five cash boxes by a cashier at an office, but demanded a sixth, the biggest of the boxes, and when the cashier obliged, it set off a burglar alarm, causing the thieves to drop all except one of the boxes, including the heaviest one which had contained ten pounds of nails. Four of the boxes had contained $570.

In Syracuse, N.Y., a law student at Syracuse University had been charged with running a stop sign, and argued the case in Traffic Court, prompting the judge to dismiss it. His defense is not provided. Probably was that because he was running late for torts class, he could not afford to be a tortoise, and, in any event, did not do it on porpoise—but had there been an accident and the other driver sued for damages, he would have been liable, res ipsa, negligence per se, as long as the other driver was not speeding or otherwise also breaking a traffic law, in which case one would have to know whether New York was a comparative negligence jurisdiction as opposed to contributory, in the latter case, negating the liability of both for either, at least, assuming there were no issues regarding actual causation or supervening causation.

In Corning, N.Y., a confusing number of alarms rang at the fire station, eventually proving to be a false alarm.

Betty Boyer, in her weekly "Grocery News" column, tells how to lighten your ironing burdens with a grand starch, suggests "a real moth proofer in bomb style", and tells of "Flavor-Control" providing pure coffee at real savings. You will find it on page 00, surely unique numeration to this particular issue, for unknown reasons, which must be fathomed and explored to the depths to prevent a whole generation coming of age questioning why. By the way, you will see tomorrow that Ms. Boyer, in her butterscotch-date cream pie recipe, was clairvoyant, albeit regarding a not yet publicized past event, which is some sort of post hoc, ergo praedicendi hoc form of clairvoyance, we trow, and sans dates.

On the editorial page, "Needed: A New Look at Teaching" indicates that there were not enough teachers in the state, particularly for elementary schools, and that there would not be enough for some time to come, as the shortage would only become more acute. There were enough black teachers, as education was one of the few respectable and relatively high-paying vocations open to blacks in the state. The supply of white elementary school teachers, however, was decreasing, as 1,537 additional such teachers had been needed in the 1952-53 school year and the state's institutions of higher learning had provided only 704. During the current school year, 1,707 such teachers were needed but in-state institutions had produced only 663. The result was large, unwieldy classes. North Carolina ranked 46th among the states in students per teacher, resulting in lower quality instruction, as North Carolina teachers could only devote half as much time to each pupil as in North Dakota, with half as many students per teacher, 14.

It indicates that merely raising the salaries of teachers was not the answer, that teacher pay in the state was slightly below the national average but had been increased sharply during recent years with no commensurate rise in the number of teachers entering the profession. It suggests that it was possibly a combination of factors, the elaborate certification system which discouraged some from entering the profession, and the fact that in some communities, teachers were expected to adhere to a too rigid social and moral code. Also, advancement in the profession was slow and afforded only moderate salary increases when accomplished. It indicates that there were other reasons and it was time to inquire of the teachers and the people who turned away from teaching, to try to find out what the problems were.

It indicates that Arkansas, formerly one of the most backward states educationally, was experimenting with a new five-year teacher training program, with the help of the Ford Foundation, whereunder future teachers received four years of undergraduate training in liberal or general education, followed by a year of carefully directed internship consisting of practical experience and study. Harvard University and 28 other institutions had developed a plan whereby non-education graduates spent a year in the Harvard Graduate School of Education. The University of Louisville had a program for liberal arts graduates which provided for a two-year internship in the city schools under competent supervision.

It indicates that those programs augmented the supply of teachers in those states and that perhaps some similar program could work in North Carolina. It urges appointment of a State commission by Governor William B. Umstead and the General Assembly for the purpose of determining the cause and the appropriate remedy.

"Suggestions for High School Seniors" indicates that thousands of high school seniors were pondering their futures more seriously than usual, and would find that demand for engineers, scientists, teachers, medical technicians and salesmen continued to be strong, while job prospects were only fair for journalists, accountants, business and liberal arts majors.

It suggests that one area in which there was usually a dearth of trained personnel and which was rarely considered as a career by students, was municipal government. It indicates that in Charlotte, for instance, there was an acute need for qualified city planners and the American Society of Planning Officials reported that there were about 50 percent more new planning jobs created each year than there were recruits graduating from planning schools. Another field in which the need was acute was rehabilitation, including social caseworkers, occupational therapists, physical therapists and various medical specialists. It urges that the seniors consider those fields.

"A Way to Justice with Mercy" indicates that one of the best descriptions of the Communist brainwashing technique yet published was the excerpt presented on the page from General Mark Clark's new book, providing a new dimension to the case of Cpl. Edward Dickenson, being court-martialed for allegedly informing on his fellow prisoners in North Korea.

General Clark had always maintained that despite the Communist brainwashing methods, in violation of the Geneva Conventions, the military had to deal toughly with prisoners who informed to deter easy surrender in future wars. Yet, it was important to the administration of military justice that the persistence of Communist brainwashing techniques be thoroughly understood so that justice could be administered with proper mercy. It would also potentially enable future prisoners of war to understand what was happening to them and to be more prepared to guard against it.

"Bulls, Dogs and People" indicates that producers of food for household pets reported that sales had amounted to 200 million dollars in 1953 for the 49.3 million cats and dogs owned by 26 million American families. The Savings & Loan League reported that 41 percent of the nation's families still lacked savings accounts.

An anonymous ophthalmologist had completed a series of operations on a bull, which now had a glass eye, while 33 to 35 percent of all students had visual difficulties interfering with their scholastic progress.

In Mobile, Ala., citizens voted for city officials at the same time they voted on the question of whether or not dogs should be allowed to run at large, and the dogs got more votes.

The American Kennel Club would still furnish four generations of dog genealogy for only a dollar, while the Daughters of the American Revolution the previous week raised their fee for genealogy searches to $10.

A piece from the Richmond News Leader, titled "'Buses'—It's Official", indicates that Word Study, a publication of the G & C Merriam Co., publisher of Webster's Dictionary, indicated that "buses" had surpassed the older form, "busses", as accepted spelling. It finds it a relief, as the News Leader had printed it with the preferred orthography for the previous ten years, over the protests of a couple of regular correspondents who were fond of pointing out that most dictionaries favored the older form. Readers had suggested that "buses" could only be pronounced as "bewse-es", as in "abuses", but it had insisted that there was no logic in American spelling or pronunciation and so continued to spell it as "buses". It hails the new Webster's.

It does not point out that "busses" would be too confusing, anyway, that when people said, "Here come the busses," listeners would think that they were in for plentiful smacking on the lips and cheeks. But if you say "buses", no such confusion arises. Also, the piece does not clarify whether the correspondents had insisted that it would be pronounced as "abuses" or "abuses".

General Mark Clark, in an excerpt from his book published this date, From the Danube to the Yalu, discusses the Communist brainwashing techniques used on prisoners of war. He indicates that the process began with segregation of the enlisted men from the officers, then weeding out of any leaders within the group, forcing the individual to stand alone, without friendship and with no family ties, as letters home were prohibited. A sense of danger set in as other men disappeared, possibly killed, causing the prisoners to fear that the same fate might befall them, constantly afraid of brutal punishment. Inactivity was calculated to enhance the fear and produce receptivity to the next phase, a discussion group led by an English-speaking Chinese or North Korean, or a fellow prisoner who had bought privileges by informing on other prisoners.

"Discussions" were actually indoctrination rituals in which the Pavlovian method was practiced, rewarding proper answers and punishing through deprivation wrong answers. Many of the men were hung on ropes by their hands, crammed into small cages, forced to stand naked in freezing temperatures and submit to cold water dousings, were beaten and thrown into solitary, unheated dark holes partly filled with water for long periods of time. When punishment did not meet with the desired end, the recalcitrant prisoners were removed and sent to some unknown destination.

Eventually, the required parroting became fixed in the minds of the men until they believed what they were saying, terrified at becoming confused and saying the wrong thing. It became increasingly easy to inform on one another, with a sense of guilt attaching to any failure to inform. At that point, there was a complete personality change and some of the men were ready to inflict the process on others.

Drew Pearson indicates that Senate observers concurred that Senator Stuart Symington of Missouri had just about lost his bid for the Democratic presidential nomination by not speaking out at the hearings on the dispute between the Army and Senator McCarthy, says that Senator Symington was too inarticulate, too meek and too suave to participate in the McCarthy debate. Senator John McClellan of the subcommittee had probably gotten himself re-elected, thanks to the hearings. A few weeks earlier, he appeared to be facing likely defeat from popular former Governor Sid McMath, but his jabs at Senator McCarthy had increased his chances by 50 percent, as Arkansas was overwhelmingly against Senator McCarthy. (Mc-math was on his side, in other words.) Senator McClellan had not had the courage which his colleague from Arkansas, J. William Fulbright, had in voting against Senator McCarthy's large appropriation for staff, but Senator Fulbright had been the only Senator to vote against it.

Senator Karl Mundt, as acting chairman of the subcommittee during the course of the investigation, had been so lame in the role that his friends feared that it would help his Republican opponent in South Dakota. He had allowed the special counsel for the subcommittee, Ray Jenkins, to act as if he were subcommittee chairman, unheard of in Senate procedure. Mr. Pearson comments that during the hearings on organized crime in 1950-51, there had been no doubt that the chairman of the committee had been Senator Estes Kefauver. Similarly, when Senator Harry Truman had been chairman of the Investigations Committee, there was no doubt of who was in charge. Senator Mundt became involved in interminable hassles, allowing Senator McCarthy to dominate the television cameras. Though supposed to be an accomplished speaker, Senator Mundt appeared not to know what to say during debate.

The reason that Mr. Jenkins had been selected as the special counsel was to spotlight a potential opponent for Senator Kefauver in Tennessee, but instead appeared to be making Senator Kefauver look, in contrast, as a bigger man and would only likely encourage Republican opposition to Senator Mundt in South Dakota.

Despite changing public opinion on Senator McCarthy, there was still an enormous fear of him within the Senate, as he knew where the corpses were buried, whether a Senator had a girlfriend, drank too much, or had problems with the IRS. Most Senators were honest and decent, but feared opposition at time of re-election, recalling that Senator McCarthy had gone into Maryland in 1950 and engineered the defeat of Senator Millard Tydings, as well as of Senator William Benton of Connecticut, trying to do the same thing to Senator Margaret Chase Smith of Maine. He had also sought to defeat his critics in several other states, such as Senator Symington, but his failures did not receive publicity, and so fear prevailed. It also appeared that he had access to income tax returns, heightening the fear, though it was against the law to have such access without an order from the President. Thus, it appeared that the President, who had said that he disapproved of Senator McCarthy's fear tactics, had approved his access to income tax returns, including those of Assistant Secretary of Defense H. Struve Hensel.

A box on the front page of the New York World-Telegram & Sun told readers where to write if they wanted to contribute to the "Joe-Must-Go" clubs in Wisconsin. Roy Howard, head of Scripps-Howard newspapers and publisher of the World-Telegram & Sun, had originally supported the Senator's efforts to weed out Communism, but had recently changed his editorials to the contrary. An editor in Wisconsin said that there had also been an equally abrupt political change in that state, because of Senator McCarthy's persecution of a black woman, Annie Lee Moss, who had not been harming anyone, and because of his attack on Brig. General Ralph Zwicker, also from Wisconsin. They generally did not like his method, which they perceived as being bad.

Robert C. Ruark, in Nairobi, indicates that the rains had come and he was ready to depart, having stopped off only to supervise the birth of his first African godchild, the son of the hunting guide for the party. It was the assumption that he would be a boy because of his father's occupation, and they had already bought him suitable toys, such as 470 double elephant rifles, hunting cars, and a truck. He says it would be a shame to have to trade them in for dolls, but that on second thought, all of the women in Kenya toted guns anyway.

He indicates that the father spent most of his life in the bush, far from the Mau Mau and the Equator Club, and his son would have a great many unusual playmates, as well as unusual "uncles". He would have a baby rhinoceros on which to ride and lion cubs to pet, snakes and bugs and horned toads to frighten his sisters. By the time he was ten, he would know how to track and scout, in the meantime would never have seen a television show or comic book. Masai warriors would teach him spear-throwing and Wakamba elephant poachers would teach him the bow and arrow. He would cut his teeth on a rifle and his father would wallop him if he ever left it dirty. He would not know anything about vandalism or zip-gun toting, hot rods, narcotics or juvenile orgies. He would learn to obtain his amusement from the life around him, finding his fun in his horses, dogs, his father and his father's friends.

He would be brought up to be polite to everyone or be tanned by his mother.

He says that he wished he were the young boy, and also wished he would hurry up and be born, as Mr. Ruark wanted to go home and see his wife and the dogs, but first had to make sure his godchild was a baby and not half buffalo.

A letter writer congratulates the newspaper for its editorial of April 26, "Loan Sharks Must Be Curbed", indicating that he had written a letter to the newspaper the previous year when the proposed garnishee law was being considered, pointing out the direct relationship of loan sharks to the absence of a strong garnishee law, that returns of the lenders had to be in proportion to the risks they took. He indicates that if one were against a strong garnishee law, that person should not sound off against loan sharks and vice versa. He finds that the rule was proved in South Carolina, where there was no garnishee law, and in Virginia, where there was.

A letter from the chairman of the athletics and recreation committee of the Jaycees of Cheraw, S.C., responds to a letter published April 17, in which the writer had indicated that Chesterfield County needed a hospital, this writer saying that the writer's statement that they tried to build playgrounds for just a few of the privileged where they wanted to locate them was incorrect, that the Jaycees had given permission to establish the only playground in Cheraw on their property and the equipment had been donated by merchants or paid for by private funds. He wants to make sure that the Jaycees received proper credit for a job well done.

A letter from the president of the Mecklenburg County Civic Club indicates opposition to the tax to support Carver and Charlotte Colleges because two previous bond elections, one for the library and one for the County home, had already driven up the cost to the taxpayer, and also because the colleges perpetuated segregation, that support of one college for all would be more efficient. He indicates that the local NAACP and Mayor Philip Van Every were not consistent, the former not having taken a stand and the latter having not waited until the Supreme Court ruled on public school desegregation, as he had advocated in the case of the hospital. He concludes that the issue was the same as that in Clarendon County in South Carolina, part of the Brown v. Board of Education case, and that segregation was not feasible in the instant case because of the increased costs for double facilities for only 300 students between the two colleges.

A letter writer recommends teaching first aid in the event of a disaster, such as an enemy attack with a nuclear bomb, suggests that a careful study of the aftermath of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs in 1945 would convince the most skeptical that many deaths could have been prevented if the average person had known how to apply simple pressure or administer intravenous glucose.

Framed Edition
[Return to Links
Page by Subject] [Return to Links-Page by Date] [Return to News<i><i><i>—</i></i></i>Framed Edition]
Links-Date Links-Subj.