The Charlotte News
Friday, December 18, 1953
Site Ed. Note: The front page reports that the President and Republican leaders of Congress, in their second round of White House conferences to establish a new legislative program for 1954, discussed taxes, the national debt limit, atomic energy and foreign affairs this date. Social Security and aid to the physically handicapped, as well as a continuing discussion of national health problems, also were on the agenda, with Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare Oveta Culp Hobby presenting her views at the morning session. The talks would continue for another day. The President was keeping the press informed on the topics being discussed, but provided no details.
Senator Bourke Hickenlooper of Iowa, after attending the morning meeting, said that no conclusions had been reached on any of the subjects discussed, including whether to amend restrictive laws on atomic information sharing, to permit the sharing suggested by the President earlier in the month, amendments which Secretary of Defense Charles E. Wilson had informed the NATO nations earlier in the week in Paris that the Administration would seek from Congress. Senator Alexander Wiley said that he had listened, but had no other comment. Representative Robert Chiperfield said that the discussion of foreign aid had been completed, but refused to say whether the 1954-55 fiscal year appropriation would be less than the current outlay.
In Versailles, France's badly divided National Assembly failed again this date to elect a president, in an unprecedented third round of voting, with none of the three candidates left in the contest obtaining enough votes. Premier Joseph Laniel wound up with 358, while Socialist candidate Marcel-Edmond Naegelen received 313, and Radical Socialist Yvon Delbos received 225. Foreign Minister Georges Bidault had withdrawn just before the third-round voting began. The number of votes needed for election was 462, and the fourth ballot to try to break the deadlock was scheduled for this afternoon.
In London, the wreckage of a missing U.S. Navy patrol bomber was reported by the U.S. Air Force to have been sighted this date on a bleak Iceland glacier, with first reports indicating that there were survivors among the nine-man crew. Air Force headquarters in London said that an Icelandic ground rescue party would be dispatched by plane to a small airfield at the foot of the glacier. The weather in the area was extremely bad, with heavy rain and snow cutting visibility to nearly zero during the early part of the day.
In Jefferson City, Mo., the two confessed kidnappers and murderers of six-year old Bobby Greenlease, who had been kidnapped on September 28 and killed within a short time thereafter, were executed this date after they had pleaded guilty in Federal District Court and a jury had then been impaneled only to hear the sentencing phase of the case, having recommended the death penalty. The kidnapping had been effected by the woman of the couple, who convinced nuns at the boy's Catholic school that she was his aunt and that his mother had suffered a heart attack and was in the hospital. The fact that lime had been purchased prior to the kidnaping, which had then been used to accelerate decomposition of the boy's body, buried in a shallow grave behind the house where the couple lived, signified to investigators that the couple always intended to kill the boy. They had collected a $600,000 ransom, only half of which had been recovered. The man of the couple confessed early to the crimes, and sought to alleviate the guilt of the woman by indicating that she was a heavy drinker, consuming two fifths of liquor per day. He admitted to being a drug addict. The woman had initially claimed that she knew nothing of the plan to kidnap and murder the boy, that she believed the boy was the man's son, but later admitted her role in the planning of the matter. The man had first sought to implicate a third party in the actual killing of the boy, but later recanted that story and admitted shooting the boy, himself. In their last minutes, the two had a brief conversation and engaged in a farewell embrace, shared a final cigarette, bade the Missouri prison guards goodbye and died side by side amid a deadly cyanide gas. The man had indicated early that he was prepared for the death penalty. They had been caught after a tip had come from a cabbie who had picked up the man, and was impressed by his free spending, believed that he might be a bank robber, and so called the police. The woman was the first female to be executed in Missouri. Neither told investigators at the last anything about what may have happened to the missing $300,000. The ransom money paid on behalf of the wealthy family, had been hastily arranged within a few days after the kidnaping, by the brother of the President, Arthur Eisenhower, a Kansas City banker and a friend of the Greenlease family. When the ransom had been paid, the boy had already been killed. Federal jurisdiction over the matter had been acquired by the fact that the kidnaping had occurred in Missouri, while the killing had taken place a few miles away in Kansas, with the Lindbergh kidnaping law passed in the wake of the kidnaping of the Lindbergh child in 1932 allowing for Federal jurisdiction when the kidnap victim was transported over state lines, either alive or dead. Both the Federal law and the state law of Missouri allowed for the death penalty for kidnaping, the difference being that harm had to come to the victim under Federal law to invoke the death penalty, but not under Missouri law.
An anonymous piece indicates that the man of the couple had "died a tremendous witness for Christ", saying at the last that his being caught had saved the lives of five others, that if he had 12 more hours of freedom, he would have killed five more people, that God had saved him from that act. He said that the five people were those he had hated all of his life. He said that he had murder in his heart, that God knew it and had saved the five others. He then lit a cigarette, and continued telling the priest that only God was important, as he now understood, and that if it had not been for whiskey, penitentiaries would have been closed. "Tell the world, Father. Look—if Christ could do this for me, a mean, drunken, miserable so-and-so, Christ could do it for anybody. I know." He said that his conversion was not out of fear of death as he had never been afraid of death. He said that his girlfriend was also repentant, and repeated that she had been drunk daily for months prior to the kidnaping, that after awhile, anything seemed all right, that he was the guilty one, that she could not say no to him and that her only sin had been loving him. He said that he was looking forward to meeting his judge. Three hours later, both were executed.
She became and remains only the second woman ever executed by the Federal Government, the first having been Ethel Rosenberg, executed six months earlier along with husband Julius for conspiring to provide atomic secrets to the Russians in 1944-45. In 2020, the Trump Administration is going for a bloodbath, executing ten persons since July, 2020, twice the maximum number of executions for non-sabotage related crimes in any single prior year, the next most having been the six executions at one time of Nazi saboteurs caught in the U.S. in 1942, and prior to that, five, in 1938, also under FDR. The ten executions in 2020 equal the prior number of executions in the Federal system going back to one of the pair of executions this date in 1953, there having been no Federal executions between 1963 and that of Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh in 2001, and none between 2003 and July, 2020. Trump is making up for lost time, the only thing in four years he has done with dispatch and consistency. Too bad he could not have used such resolve to keep more than 315,000 people in the country alive during the pandemic of the past nine months by acting in an honest and assertive manner from its inception, telling the nation the bad news it needed to hear rather than treating the deadly disease as a "hoax", no worse than the flu, and saying instead to hell with the deniers of science among his most rabid, cultist fans, cultivated out of his reality-tv days as the fake "boss", who, in reality, is an incompetent, lying slob who could not run a dog pound efficiently if any community were so collectively insane to place him in charge of same. Trumpies, do not ever do this again.
In Nashville, Tenn., a series of dynamite explosions had ripped through a construction office, two widely separated barbershops and a cleaning plant this date, and police were working on the theory that it had some connection to a series of previous blasts with uncertain motives. No one had been injured and the buildings were unoccupied at the time of the explosions. Two homemade bombs made from sticks of dynamite had not detonated and were found by police on the roof of the construction company. The same company had suffered heavy damage the previous September 7, when a series of dynamite explosions had ripped through its road-building machines at Gallatin. A company spokesman said that it was involved in some labor trouble prior to that latter series of explosions, but that it had been the last trouble they had.
Ann Sawyer of The News indicates that the Mecklenburg grand jury, which had completed for the present its investigation of Charlotte Police Department corruption, was scheduled to render its final report during the afternoon, as its term would expire the following day. A new grand jury would be appointed on January 4, and the present grand jury could request that it continue the investigation. Thus far, the grand jury had heard from 57 witnesses on the matter, including columnist Drew Pearson, whose accusations had been the original reason for the investigation, after he published a column and said on his Sunday television program a few months earlier that gambling operations in the city had been permitted to exist by the police through the taking of bribes.
Also in Charlotte, Keith Beaty was found guilty by a jury of three counts of Federal income tax evasion in the U.S. District Court this date. He had been charged with attempted evasion of payment of about $200,000 in income taxes during the years 1945-47, one count for each year. The jury, which deliberated for nearly three hours, recommended mercy for Mr. Beaty based on his ill health.
Emery Wister of The News tells of temperatures having dropped to 11 degrees the previous day, as recorded at the Charlotte Municipal Airport, the lowest temperature in the area since the same temperature was recorded November 26, 1950, setting a new low record for the date, the previous low of 19.2 degrees having been established in 1901. He reports that the Charlotte area had not experienced colder weather generally since 1940, when a week-long cold spell in January of that year had caused the temperature to drop to 6 degrees, where it remained for several days. It was colder in Charlotte during the morning than in New York and Boston, with the temperature having fallen only to 17 at New York's LaGuardia Airport and to 13 in Boston, though the previous day, when Charlotte reached a high of 33, Manhattan's high had been 27. The Weather Bureau predicted another cold day this date and indicated that the night would be almost as bitter as the previous night, with a high this date of 31 and a low during the night of 16. The cold air stretched from New England to Florida, though the low in Key West during the morning was 57. Warm air was expected to raise temperatures by Sunday afternoon, when light rain was expected. It provides cold temperatures for South Carolina and other areas of North Carolina as well.
At least one death had occurred, in Rock Hill, S.C., attributed to the cold, as a woman was found lying in her yard early this date and died later in the hospital, with authorities believing that she had suffered an attack while in the yard, but attributed death to exposure.
In Rochedale, England, somebody had sawn off the top six feet of the community Christmas tree the previous night, while the town's trained police dogs slept soundly a few yards away.
Hang those good-for-nothin's.
On the editorial page, "Presentments Are Not Verdicts" indicates that the four presentments handed down the previous day by the Mecklenburg County grand jury should not be interpreted as necessarily indicating guilt of Police Chief Frank Littlejohn, who, it says, had fought undesirable elements in the city for many years. The presentments did not provide the supporting facts upon which they had been based, and one of them rested on the credibility of Lamar Caudle, former head of the tax and criminal divisions of the Justice Department at different times during the Truman Administration, and whose credibility was in question because of allegations of acceptance of gifts to fix tax cases by referring them for only civil penalties. Chief Littlejohn had not been given an opportunity yet to provide his side of the story and presentments were not formal charges, but merely instructions to the local Solicitor to prepare bills of indictment which would then go before a new grand jury in January, who would determine whether the facts warranted returns of bills, after which, if returned, the resulting charges would go before a regular petit jury.
It urges that it would be a grave injustice to the Chief late in his career for the public to conclude that he was guilty of any or all of the accusations, that such a suspension of judgment was consistent with the American tradition that a person was presumed innocent until proven guilty, "a tradition that has been roughly trampled on elsewhere in these frenzied times."
It indicates that Solicitor Basil Whitener should proceed expeditiously, and if there were legal grounds on which the State could make a case, he should have the bills of indictment ready when the next term of criminal court opened, and that if, based on the unanimous agreement of the 18 members of the grand jury, such bills were returned, it would be his duty to pursue the matter vigorously in criminal court.
"$4,156 a Year—Plus Wages" indicates that such a wage was good money for an industrial worker, unless he worked for the Lincoln Electric Company in Cleveland, where only unskilled and inefficient workers received such a small wage. The company worked on an "incentive management" system, whereby each worker received, in addition to the standard wages, a bonus based on individual production, with the current month's bonus having amounted to $5,104,000, spread among the company's 1,228 employees, or an average of $4,156 each for a month of work.
The program had been used by Lincoln since 1918 and workers over the previous 20 years had received an average of $45,000 apiece in incentive pay, over and above regular earnings. During that time, not a single hour of production time had been lost because of labor-management disputes.
James P. Lincoln, creator of the system, had related those facts in his 1951 book, Incentive Management, saying that he preferred not to be encumbered by powerful unions and Federal restraints, as with most employers, but that most others became too concerned with making a profit, when concentrating on making a better product to be sold to more people at a lower price was the better approach, while developing the latent ability and cooperation of the workforce, paying them well, would produce the desired profits. He had reported in the book that his employees' wages were slightly more than twice that of competitors, and their productivity had exceeded by more than four times that of the competitors. He believed that another part of the incentive program was the availability to Lincoln employees of stock ownership, asserting that public stock ownership rather than employee stock ownership weakened the "team spirit" within a company.
The piece wonders why more hard-headed businessmen did not try such an incentive system.
"Hit and Run Chronologically" indicates that on October 12, Senator McCarthy had said that his new probe into the pilfering of documents regarding radar from Fort Monmouth in New Jersey, allegedly winding up in East Germany, had turned up evidence of "extremely dangerous espionage" which would envelop the whole Signal Corps. The following day, it was reported that the Investigations subcommittee chaired by the Senator had evidence that a "sizable amount" of "top-secret" material was missing from the Signal Corps files at Fort Monmouth. The following day, October 14, the Senator was quoted as saying that the subcommittee had "convincing testimony that some of the top-secret documents regarding radar and other matters did turn up in the Eastern zone of Berlin." Then, on October 20, it was reported that the Senator had announced that 20 civilian employees at Fort Monmouth had been fired for alleged Communist activities, and two days later, that the Senator was not saying whether there was espionage at Fort Monmouth or whether there was not.
Those reports were followed on November 13 by a report that Secretary of the Army Robert Stevens had asserted that there were no suspected spies among about 33 workers suspended on loyalty charges from the Signal Corps radar laboratory at Fort Monmouth. On December 15, it was reported that Senator McCarthy had declared that he wanted to clarify "some confusion" about his Fort Monmouth inquiry, stating that it was "sufficient" to prove that there was "potential espionage" at the facility.
A piece from the Twin-City Sentinel in Winston-Salem, titled "Famous N.Y. Landmark Fades Away", indicates that the musical play "South Pacific" was closing after having run for 1,925 performances since it had open on April 7, 1949. It was still drawing plenty of patrons but the Broadway theater where it was playing was being taken over by a ballet company, and the production did not wish to move to another location. Rodgers and Hammerstein, composers of the music for the play, believed that the touring company, which had been on the road for four years, would be sufficient henceforth.
For the previous four and a half years, when people returned from New York, they were always asked whether they had seen "South Pacific". For many, it had become their favorite among the Rodgers and Hammerstein shows, which included "Oklahoma!" and "The King and I", the latter still running and showing no signs of closing.
"South Pacific" would rank second among musicals and fifth among plays in general for longest run in terms of performances, with "Oklahoma!" ranking first, with 2,248 performances, and subsequently reopened on two occasions for another 112 performances. Touring companies had carried it everywhere, even to wartime bases. After "South Pacific", came "The King and I", "Life with Father", "Tobacco Road", and "Irish Rose".
It remarks that the durability of "South Pacific" had been tested initially when Ezio Pinza quit after the first season and Mary Martin had left after two years, both of whom had become so closely identified with the musical that it was hard to imagine anyone else singing "Some Enchanted Evening" or washing her hair on stage. But the musical had proved bigger than even its biggest stars, and continued with others in the lead roles. It finds that New York would not seem the same without its presence and suggests that the question asked in the future would be, "Did you see it?"
Drew Pearson indicates that Secretary of State Dulles had performed a lot of diplomatic chores, but never had been given the task of operating a stapling machine, which he had done over the Atlantic, en route from the Big Three conference in Bermuda earlier in the month. The President had been late in putting the finishing touches on his atomic energy speech, delivered at the U.N. on his return, December 8, and so even while flying to New York, he did so, while his secretary copied it on a large-type typewriter so that the President could read it more easily, and the secretary to White House press secretary James Hagerty cut the memeograph stencil so that it could be copied. Mr. Hagerty ran the mimeograph machine and propaganda chief C. D. Jackson, who had written most of the speech, assembled the pages, while Admiral Lewis Strauss, chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, helped, as Mr. Dulles stapled together the pages. But because Mr. Dulles had been a little slow in the process, only 200 copies of the speech had been completed when the President's plane landed, and so the Secret Service took copies of the stencil and rushed them to the U.N. mimeograph room, where more copies were produced for what was billed as, and what had been, "one of the most momentous" speeches of the new Administration.
Not much of what had been said by former Vice-President Alben Barkely at the Democratic dinner in Philadelphia reached the newspapers, because it had been delivered off-the-cuff with no mimeographed text, but his spicy humor had been a smash hit. He said that during the 1952 Democratic convention, the Democrats had backed away from him for the nomination, but now had asked him to be toastmaster for this event, before DNC chairman's Stephen Mitchell had called to tell him that Senator Frances Myers would instead be the toastmaster, which he said was not the first time the Democratic Party had switched on him. He said that he was 76 at present, but about a year earlier, he had met an Arab fortuneteller who predicted that he would live to be 105, and she was one Arab with whom he was cooperating very closely. He also said that when the President had won the election by such a wide margin, he figured the Democrats would not come back for a long time, but in recent months, had changed his mind, reminding him of a husband in Paris whose wife died and afterward he discovered she had been receiving the attentions of another gentleman, who appeared at the funeral, weeping profusely, causing the husband, who had restrained grief, to pat him on the back and say: "Don't feel too bad, old pal. I'll marry again soon."
Attorney General Herbert Brownell's 17-year old daughter was practicing what her father preached. She had accidentally entered a black church, discovering that she was the only white person present, but sat down and stayed for the entire service.
War Claims chairman Dan Cleary had recently passed away, and the President was so anxious to replace the other two Democratic commissioners that he wrote a curt letter dismissing them, while they were attending Mr. Cleary's funeral.
The President occasionally dropped into the Army-Navy Club on an unannounced visit with old cronies, causing the Secret Service to run a security check on all of the club's employees.
First Lady Mamie Eisenhower had promised to swing the champagne bottle at the launching of the Navy's first atomic submarine.
Senator Joseph McCarthy had made a point of the fact that Brig. General Telford Taylor's service record was marked with a red flag, but, Mr. Pearson indicates, the Senator's record at the Pentagon was similarly flagged.
Senator Richard Russell of Georgia, leader of the Southern bloc in Congress, was so upset with Republicans that there was no chance of forming another Republican-Southern Democratic coalition during the second session of the 83rd Congress. He was upset over the Administration's handling of the farm problem, its use of FBI files to attack Democrats, and the Republican drive to eliminate segregation.
The Administration had played no favorites in prosecuting the smugglers of a million dollars worth of Charolais cattle into Louisiana from a part of Mexico infected with hoof-and-mouth disease, with the cattleman who had bought the cattle having now been indicted, along with the man who had sold the cattle to him and the man who had done the smuggling. John Minor Wisdom, the top political adviser to the President in Louisiana, had been retained as an attorney by the purchaser of the cattle, but had defended the case without seeking to pull wires behind the scenes.
Marquis Childs indicates that though South Korean President Syngman Rhee had receded into the background insofar as news and the public attention paid to him, he remained of great concern to U.S. top policy-makers. Just prior to Secretary of State Dulles having left for Paris to attend the NATO Council meeting, he had received intensive briefing on President Rhee's latest activities, which included trying to form a Pacific pact directed against Communism, having visited Formosa to confer with Chiang Kai-shek and sent emissaries to other Southeast Asian capitals. Secretary Dulles believed that such a pact was not feasible at present.
The previous August, the President had made available two hundred million dollars for Korean relief and reconstruction, to begin the broad program of restoring Korea, with the goal of making South Korea a showpiece for what could be accomplished with goodwill, resources and knowhow. But that project had been dragging, as the U.S. was attempting to obtain an agreement with President Rhee on ground rules covering how the money would be spent.
During the three years of war, the Korean population had been often overlooked. Even while American surpluses of wheat were being sent, millions of South Koreans lived at the starvation level or below. U.S. policy tended to augment rather than check the inflation which had caused further hardship to Koreans. For months, C. Tyler Wood had represented the Foreign Overseas Administration headed by Harold Stassen, trying to obtain cooperation from President Rhee on how aid would be distributed. Recently, an agreement had been reached, containing a provision that aid goods would be sold at prices similar to those on the free market or at a rate commensurate with the ratio between the dollar and the Korean won, 180 won being the equivalent of a dollar. During the war, some of the relief goods, especially fertilizer, had entered the black market, with the result that Korean farmers paid many times the market price.
The U.N. was directing its own effort at Korean rehabilitation as well, to which the U.S. had pledged to contribute up to 65 percent of the cost of its operation.
The time for holding a political conference and dealing with the prisoners resisting repatriation would soon expire, and President Rhee had said many times that he would go to war again if Korea were not unified by that date, six months after the end of the war, or in late January. U.S. top policy-makers believed that he would not carry out that threat, but might exact a steep price for maintaining peace, including the determination of how American aid money would be spent.
Robert C. Ruark indicates that at Christmas, he would be somewhere East of Suez, "raising a thirst", en route to Australia and India, where he had "a tiger in mind". He says he would rather wrestle a tiger than face the holiday round of "office-drinkings and convivial family orgies." He did not like eggnog or any type of holiday drinks, or "the kind of office whiskey that gets served warm in leaky paper cups, when the file clerks kiss the boss and the secretaries get chased by their superiors." He says that he had never attended such an office party which he could remember where someone did not get sick, get slugged, where a bottle did not get busted into the top-secret files, or someone did not tell their superior off or go home and get into a fight with their wife over the secretary's lipstick on their ear.
He had a pleasing Christmas the previous year in Addis Ababba, where a Texan who flew planes for Ethiopian Airlines had invited him in to spend the holiday with his family. There was no mistletoe or eggnog but rather "nice people being nice to other people."
He had spent the previous New Year's in the Aberdares bush where the Mau Mau flourished in Kenya, in a tent with some white and black folks whom he liked, "and the stars were close and I couldn't hear a couple of neighbors being murdered over the hill and that was a nice New Year's." Even with the Mau Mau and the hyenas in the tents, there were no office parties or gatherings where distant relatives sat around and sneered at one another "over a glass of curdled cream and bad bourbon, wishing the evening would end so they could all go home and go to bed."
Well, were you still alive in 2020, you would not have to face such prospects at all this Christmas and New Year's, unless, that is, you are a reckless jackass not caring a whit for the welfare of others, including those immediately around you, and so will gather and do whatever you normally do on Christmas, and say to hell with everyone else. Try to conduct yourself better than that for at least this one year. Should someone invite you to some such gathering, just say no, that you prefer still to be living by February.
A letter writer who was the Southern organizing director for the CIO Textile Workers Union of America thanks the newspaper for its December 10 editorial, "Don't Blame Out-of-State Industries", finding the points well taken and handled in an intelligent and understanding manner.
A letter writer indicates that in the current issue of the Democratic Digest, there was an attribution to FBI director J. Edgar Hoover of two statements which appeared in direct contradiction to his testimony concerning investigational procedure, provided before the committee chaired by Senator William Jenner of Indiana. The Digest had said that on March 26, 1947, Mr. Hoover had said that in one of the espionage cases, a spy ring was maintained under close surveillance for over 18 months, and that the arrests when made had broken the backbone of the Nazi spy system in America—referring to the arrests of 32 of 33 sought Nazi spies made on June 28-29, 1941, the largest spy bust to that point in U.S. history. The director had said that he shuddered at the thought of what might have occurred had there been a disclosure of the FBI's operations and the sources of information in the initial days of that investigation. The Digest said that on February 7, 1950, the director had testified that arrests and public disclosures in espionage cases were steps to be taken only as a matter of last resort, that it was better to know who the people were, what they were doing and immobilize their efforts than to expose them publicly and then have to identify their successors. The writer finds also puzzling the summary of an important February 1, 1946 FBI report by Attorney General Brownell, which, according to the Digest, had omitted the fact that the investigation into Harry Dexter White, after November, 1945, had been "conducted with the primary objective of proving or disproving the original charges", as enumerated in the Brownell report, and that it should be realized that to prove those charges at the present time, relating to activities occurring in 1942 and 1943, was "practically impossible".
A letter from Harry Golden, editor of the Carolina Israelite, discusses the letter published two days earlier purporting to provide the "Arab viewpoint" on Palestine, responding to an earlier letter which the second writer had contended was the Israeli viewpoint, without providing proper perspective on the Arab view. Mr. Golden indicates that the writer had expressed indignation over the failure to implement the U.N. recommendation for the internationalization of Jerusalem, but that the "Arab viewpoint" was not the one to champion the U.N., since the Arab states had consistently refused to recognize the reestablishment of Israel by the U.N., despite recognition of Israel by all other powers in the world. He indicates that the writer's attempt to link Israel with Communism was contrary to the facts, that the Labor Party of Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion had been unable to form a government without the cooperation of the second most powerful party in the nation, the General Zionists, who were roughly equivalent to the U.S. Republican Party. The third most powerful party in Israel was the Orthodox, after which there were six other parties with greater numerical strength and greater influence in the Government than the Communists, of whom there were only two in the Government, one of whom was an Arab. The previous writer had repeated the old claim that American Zionists had caused the partition of Palestine because of the "Jewish vote". But in a democracy, Mr. Golden continues, citizens were permitted to vote as they chose and the U.S. had been molded by voting blocs within the major political parties as well as outside them, and voting had always been impacted by several factors, economic status, geography, cultural backgrounds and many others. The urban population voted one way on certain issues while the rural population voted a different way. North and South were frequently aligned along different sides of political issues, while a Scandinavian name was an asset for a candidate in Minnesota and a Latin name, in New Mexico, an Irish name, in Boston, and so on. The system had worked well for a century and a half and the balance achieved was proof of that fact. The letter writer had also failed to mention that a powerful Jewish group had fought against reestablishment of Israel in 1948. Mr. Golden says that no new nation had ever come into being with more complete legality than had Israel.
He might have mentioned the 1917 Balfour Declaration, by the British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour, promising an independent homeland for the Jewish people in Palestine, which was cited often in the post-war period as a basis for establishing the modern state of Israel, made the more urgent and important by the Holocaust in Europe during World War II, resulting in the deaths of six million Jews, an attempt by the Nazis to exterminate the Jewish people in Europe.
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