The Charlotte News

Thursday, October 3, 1946


Site Ed. Note: The front page reports that the worst aviation accident thus far in history had occurred over Stephenville, Newfoundland, when an American Overseas Airlines DC-4 crashed killing all 39 aboard. The previous highest death toll in a single crash had been 27, occurring just two weeks earlier, on September 18, also in Newfoundland. The plane was bound from New York to Berlin and many of the passengers were women and children seeking to join American servicemen in the occupation zone. Three of the passengers were infants and three others were children. The crash occurred at 3:24 a.m., ten minutes after taking off from Stephenville. Normally, the plane would have refueled at Gander, the site of the crash of the Belgian airliner two weeks earlier, but weather had caused the plane to change its route. Eighteen persons had survived the earlier crash in the rugged mountains.

*In Nuremberg, German civil authorities ordered the arrest of the three acquitted War Crimes Tribunal defendants, Hjalmar Schact, Franz von Papen, and Han Fritsche pursuant to the de-Nazification laws which permitted up to ten years imprisonment. The Nuremberg Palace of Justice in which the defendants had been imprisoned and which still served as their home was surrounded by the German police.

*American military personnel were scheduled to escort the three defendants this night to Hamburg in the British occupation zone. Until they were clear of the American zone, they were to be protected from arrest by the Germans.

In London at the Palestine Conference, Arab delegates were seeking an independent state by December 31, 1948. In the interim, they sought a provisional government consisting of seven Arab and three Jewish ministers. They also wanted Jewish immigration to Palestine prohibited. Britain said that it would consider the proposal.

In Paris, Secretary of State Byrnes stated at the American Club that the conflict between the Allies was serious but that no imminent threat of war existed. He expressly agreed with the statement on that point made the previous week by Josef Stalin to a London newspaper reporter. He spoke primarily of the future of Germany, echoing his Stuttgart speech of September 6, and stating again his proposal for a 40-year treaty which would provide for demilitarization and disarmament of Germany. The U.S. was firmly opposed to any struggle for control of Germany between Russia and the West.

*Reporter David Snell of The Atlanta Constitution reported that Japanese scientists had developed and successfully tested an atomic bomb on August 12, 1945, two days before the end of the war, and that the scientists were in the custody of the Russians in Moscow, being pressured to reveal the atomic secret. Mr. Snell had recently returned from Korea as part of the 24th criminal investigation detachment of the Army. He stated that he obtained the story from a Japanese officer who claimed to have been the head of the counter-espionage unit of Japan's atomic development center in Konan, Korea, during the war. The officer claimed to have witnessed the successful test.

American and Japanese scientists and intelligence officers in Tokyo discounted the story. According to Dr. Yoshio Nishina, Japan's leading nuclear physicist, the story was a "complete lie", the product of typical Japanese military bravado. He stated that there were no nuclear experiments in Korea, only a fertilizer factory in Konan.

Secretary of War Robert Patterson also stated that the story was untrue. Maj. General Leslie Groves, military head of the Manhattan Project, stated that if true, he would be very interested in such a development.

The Chinese Government stated that it hoped to capture the Communist second city of Kalgan within three days. Communist forces were reported within four miles of Peiping in an offensive along 90 miles of the Peiping-Hankow railroad, designed to draw off Government troops from the Kalgan offensive. The Communists also threatened Tientsin.

President Truman agreed with Reconversion director John R. Steelman that the meat shortage would likely intensify during the winter but stressed that there would be no meat famine.

William Ferris of the Associated Press reports that despite the meat shortage and absence of livestock, beef cows were selling at higher prices under price control than in the unregulated market of July and August. The beef cows were a major part of the small number of livestock newly arriving at market.

The President predicted that the country would finish the fiscal year with a two hundred million dollar surplus, altering his earlier prediction of a 1.9 billion dollar deficit.

Former Secretary of State Cordell Hull, having suffered a stroke two days earlier, took a turn for the worse and was in "most critical" condition. As indicated, he would recover and live until 1955.

The House Campaign Expenditures Committee was sending two special agents to investigate charges brought by a third candidate in the Democratic Congressional primary in Missouri, in which Enos Axtell defeated incumbent Roger Slaughter after President Truman enlisted the support of the Pendergast machine to defeat Mr. Slaughter. The third candidate charged that campaign finance laws had been violated by the excessive spending of both of the front-runners.

In Hollywood, two men were shot to death in a luxurious apartment as part of a gangland feud. Killed were Benny "The Meatball" Gamson and George Levinson. The killer escaped. Two police officers saw Mr. Gamson run screaming from his apartment and then fall over dead on the sidewalk. Both men had been questioned by police and released the previous May regarding the shooting of a man from a passing car.

*Also in Hollywood, some 400 striking movie-set builders of the Conference of Studio Unions picketed Republic Studios. Some overturned a car. Two were arrested trying to overturn a second car. Only a few pickets were observed at the other seven major studios, including MGM where the most violent picketing had occurred two days earlier, resulting in 37 injured.

According to testimony by the president of the Newsprint Association of Canada before the House Interstate Subcommittee, the prospect for more newsprint from Canada was gloomy.

OPA allowed price hikes on imported leathers which in turn would allow novelty leather items, including handbags, to rise in price.

In the second play-off game for the National League pennant, St. Louis led 2 to 1 over the Brooklyn Dodgers after four innings. Stay tuned.

On page 5-A, Tom Fesperman reports of the Wreck of Old 97, along with pictures of the mishap dug up by a man intrigued by News editorials and letters on the subject.

On the editorial page, "The Budgeteers Face Inflation" comments on the reasonable requests for increased expenditures coming from several sources being considered by the Advisory Budget Commission of the State Legislature, planning for the next session. Most of it, including a rise in teacher salaries, could come from increased revenues from existing taxes and surpluses on hand. Eventually, however, the revenue would decline and the salaries would remain.

The only new service was the Medical Care Program, but the State was only going to foot about one-third of that bill. The program was necessary even if requiring a special levy to support it, to keep its supporters pregnant with enthusiasm.

It points out that the opposition to the new University medical school had sought to nix it on the ground of costing too much money, even utilizing the argument put forward by The News that it ought be located in Charlotte, a population center, rather than in Chapel Hill, as justification for cancellation. The editorial thinks that an absurd position. It was a cornerstone of the medical care program. The two private medical colleges, Bowman Gray in Winston-Salem and Duke in Durham, were not producing enough doctors, nurses, and technicians for the demands of the state.

"Eisenhower for President?" finds the speculation by Arthur Krock of The New York Times that General Eisenhower might become either the Democratic or Republican nominee for the presidency in 1948 not at all far-fetched or unreasonable. He had the necessary personal sensitivity and faith in the country's democratic ideals to become the country's chief executive.

Gone were the old taints associated with the corrupt years of the Grant Administration. A soldier was thus no longer necessarily excluded in the public mind from consideration as presidential material.

General MacArthur, touted for the Republican nomination in 1944, was also a prospect again in 1948. But Col. Robert McCormick, a prime backer in 1944, was looking elsewhere because of General MacArthur's age of 68.

Mr. Krock had also raised issues concerning the latter's character and fitness for the office. Hanson Baldwin of The Times had reported that General MacArthur was more a heel than hero at the fall of Corregidor in spring, 1942. And the General's imperious and arrogant tendencies had made him singularly unpopular with his soldiers.

Mr. Krock had speculated that President Truman might withdraw from the race or be forced out, leaving the Democrats seeking a candidate, with General Eisenhower or General George Marshall filling the bill. But General Marshall also was getting too old.

It was unknown whether General Eisenhower was a Democrat or Republican, and that stood as a tribute to his even-tempered personality and apolitical stance as a soldier—in contrast to General MacArthur.

"Wisdom", incidentally, from November 16, 1945, is now here.

"Abbott's a Man of His Word" comments on Furman Bisher's sports page story that the Charlotte Hornets manager, Spencer Abbott, would not return for the 1947 season after leading the team to the league pennant in 1946. Nevertheless, Mr. Abbott had never been popular with the Griffith Park crowds. He was a little crotchety and resented the hoots aimed at him when he would stomp onto the diamond to berate a pitcher.

But Charlotte had been fortunate to have him in the first post-war season. The team broke all of its old attendance records, was on a sound financial footing as a result.

Mr. Bisher reported that after Mr. Abbott had received some jeering from fans behind third base, he had stated, "I'll give those damned so-and-sos a pennant and shove it down their throats." And he did—even if it was unlikely that he used such polite terminology as "so-and-sos".

The piece concludes that even if in a minority, it was sorry to see him go.

Drew Pearson tells of Operation Crossroads commander Vice-Admiral W. H. P. Blandy being angered by the cancellation of the third Bikini test of the atomic bomb, scheduled for 1947. The test, it was believed, would have demonstrated the obsolescence of all modern navies and shown more starkly the devastating capability of the bomb. A report by Admiral Blandy and his aides stated that more than half the men aboard the test ships at Bikini would have been instantly killed and that 60 percent of the survivors would have either died or been permanently disabled by wounds or radiation.

As the information on the two tests had only gradually leaked out to the public, the brass had been anxious to hold the third test, slated to have been an underwater explosion, so that a more accurate impression of the bomb's destructive capability could be conveyed.

One example of the public misimpression was the story of Pig No. 311, which had supposedly survived the second blast and been found swimming in Bikini Lagoon. But it turned out that Pig No. 311 had been nowhere near the blast area, that the story was simply a hoax. Admiral Blandy had refused to have his picture taken with the pig, saying that it had never left the U.S.S. Burleson, the ship which transported the test animals back to Washington.

The fact that Pig No. 311 was a hoax did not deter Life from portraying it nevertheless as fact ten months later, in its August 11, 1947 issue.

Mr. Pearson notes that the Bikini test bombs were "mere beanbags" compared to the capabilities of bombs being developed, which could destroy a hundred square miles of territory.

Senator Kenneth McKellar of Tennessee held a congenial conference with the President on flood control. The President promised to review his slashing of a half billion dollars from the budget on flood control pursuant to his war powers. But the President also lectured the Senator about advocating a balanced budget as long as it was balanced in some other state than his own.

**RCA head David Sarnoff was accustomed to being called "mister" despite his having been in and out of the Army as a general. In December, 1944, he had sought to hail a cab in New York while out of uniform. A young lieutenant interceded and caught the cab ahead of him. The cab driver told Mr. Sarnoff that between a civilian and a serviceman, the serviceman always got the nod, drove away. Mr. Sarnoff then realized he could no longer pull rank.

**Denotes section of the Pearson column not in that carried by The News this date.

Marquis Childs tells of the first meeting since 1937 of the International Congress of the Cooperative Movement, shortly to convene in Zurich. The cooperative had once held great power in the movement toward economic democracy.

The totalitarian movements both in Russia after 1917 and in Germany after 1933 had found it impossible to eradicate all vestiges of the cooperative, but in both countries, the dictatorships succeeded in making it a part of the State. The state-controlled cooperative of Russia was sending a delegation to Zurich, but their autonomy was so negligible as to render their impact a nullity.

The once apolitical cooperatives now had been taken over in many countries by political organizations. In Czechoslovakia, for instance, the cooperatives were dominated by communists.

One of the most important delegations would be that from the United States. Cooperatives in America had doubled in number during the previous decade. Murray Lincoln of the Ohio Farm Bureau Federation had been a leader in motivating cooperation. Another leader was Howard Cowden of Kansas City, who had done much to urge cooperation in the refining and wholesaling of petroleum products. He would propose a plan at the international congress for the formation of an international oil cooperative.

Such an organization had political potential which could not be ignored. An oil cooperative might avoid the pitfalls of ruthless competition between nations for ownership of oil reserves. The State Department had proposed a plan for equal access to oil reserves by all nations, in furtherance of the principles of the Atlantic Charter and to avoid war over access to the precious resource.

The cooperative thus was a possibility which offered a practical method by which wider control of economic resources might be achieved, tailored to the needs and desires of particular areas of the world and its varying economies.

Peter Edson warns Secretary of Agriculture Clinton Anderson that his latest speech, saying that meat and livestock controls would stand, having been pre-approved by President Truman, could be the kiss of death as surely as it had been to former Secretary of Commerce Henry Wallace in September.

The Administration appeared to be assuming that keeping meat prices under control would prevent strikes until after the election and provide the Democrats with a better chance of retention of Congress, meat being the principal issue in the campaign.

If controls were lifted with a short supply of livestock, then prices would climb rapidly and precipitously. But if they were removed when a good supply was on hand, then the rise would not be quite so sudden and steep. The July-August glut of meat while controls were suspended left the feedlots without animals, but plenty of livestock remained on the range and farms.

Most livestock came to market in October through January and peak prices were generally reached in August and September. As the supply would go up, the prices would then fall accordingly through January. Fall bad weather and the end of grass drove the cattle off the range. A third were sent to the feedlots for three to six months for fattening. Two-thirds went directly to market.

The spring pigs came to market in the fall, even if one little Piggie stayed home. Corn was harvested in October. The crop was large in 1946, meaning an end to the feed shortage for pigs which had limited production since 1944. Corn would have lower prices, meaning lower livestock and meat prices.

Taking ceilings off at present would result probably in more animals coming to market in the fall. Keeping controls in place gave the cattlemen incentive to retain their livestock through the winter, as they knew price control would end by June 30, 1947.

The arguments being advanced by the President and Administration officials would have held true had price controls been retained throughout July and August, but the overhauling of OPA and the lapse of controls during that period had ruined effective price control.

Governor Ellis Arnall of Georgia provides an excerpt from his soon to be published book, The Shore Dimly Seen, examining the origin of Southerners being, to a large degree, Scottish. Thus, he posits, it was not surprising that "witch doctors" of the South resorted to the fiery cross of the clansman as a symbol for their "sheeted parody".

Nowhere was Southern thought more paradoxical than in the realm of civil rights. There were never enacted laws in the South which interrupted freedom of speech and thought such as pervaded in the Midwest. The only such statute ever passed in Georgia was held unconstitutional when it was finally brought to light with an attempted prosecution after laying dormant for a half century.

Demagogues the world over used as scapegoats weak and relatively defenseless religious or racial groups. Whereas the demagogue in California might pick on the Nisei, in Germany, the Jew, the Southern demagogue chose the "nigger" as the repository of the region's sins and shortcomings. The demagogue universally despised colleges, teachers, and students, for they threatened his rule by ignorance.

He accused academics of advocating miscegenation merely because they sought sanitary restroom facilities for blacks, and was able often to achieve credulity in the effort among his marks for their inability to understand the academic's purpose and speech.

The Southerner rejected both an industry of robotic automatons acting as slaves to machines and mass production on the cotton farm.

The South was one of the last frontiers and its development was important not only to its inhabitants but also to the rest of the country.

Nicholas Mitchell, writing in The Greenville News, tells of the South being disgruntled with the Democratic Party in recent years, more so than any other region of the country, but would, notwithstanding the fact, continue to vote for the party in an election.

He thinks these Southerners ought form a third party lest they find themselves voting for Henry Wallace in 1948 as the Democratic nominee, as most of labor and the liberal vote would be behind him. President Truman would be considered the conservative candidate with a tough foreign policy. Mr. Wallace would be perceived as a friend to Russia.

Chief Justice Fred Vinson might emerge, he continues, as a compromise candidate between the two. Secretary of State James Byrnes and Senator Harry F. Byrd would not be considered.

Republicans remained associated with Reconstruction and thus could never be accepted by Southerners. Yet, Southern views, especially on fiscal responsibility and free enterprise, were more simpatico with Republicans than with Democrats.

He suggests that a third party, more compatible with Jeffersonian principles, would get nowhere in 1948, would only divide the Democratic vote, but in time might pay dividends.

*Denotes story not on the front page of The News, culled from other front pages of the date.

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