Friday, July 13, 1945

The Charlotte News

Friday, July 13, 1945


Site Ed. Note: The front page reports that 700 B-29's, bombers, fighters, and long-range search planes had hit Japan with 3,000 tons of incendiary and demolition bombs along a 770-mile arc north and south of Tokyo. Only weak opposition in the air was encountered. The targets hit were Kawasaki in Tokyo Bay, Tsuruga, 55 miles northwest of Nagoya, Utsunomiya, 60 miles north of Tokyo, Ichinomiya, nine miles northwest of Nagoya, and Uwajima, on the west-central coast of Shikoku.

These were the same targets reported hit the previous day and it was not clear whether this was an additional raid or just Allied confirmation of the raid reported the day before.

On Borneo, the Australian Seventh Division advanced deep into Japanese defenses at Stone Ridge, north of captured Balikpapan. Dutch units joined the Aussies in a left flanking maneuver up Kariango Peninsula, encircling the Japanese six miles north of Balikpapan.

In northwest Borneo, the Australian Ninth Division made a new surprise landing near Adus, 26 miles northeast of Beaufort, as another column advanced ten miles along Beaufort to the Jesselton railway, thirty miles from Jesselton, itself.

The weather on Borneo was tropical and rainy.

On Mindanao, the Japanese in the Agusan River Valley and the Davao Gulf area were being mopped up. A prisoner told of finding in the Tamogan sector 40 Japanese women and children with their throats cut, having been done by the Japanese mothers to prevent their being taken prisoner.

General George C. Kenney was made head tactical commander of the Army Seventh Air Force in the war against Japan. He had been the right-hand man to General MacArthur since the early days of the war and more recently had commanded the 5th and 13th Air Forces in the Far Eastern theater. He vowed that raids would be flying at altitudes from 10 to 10,000 feet, 24 hours a day, until Japan was defeated. The Army Air Forces out of Okinawa were henceforth under the overall command of General MacArthur.

A late report indicated that a typhoon packing 138 mph winds had hit the Third Fleet of Admiral Halsey off the Ryukyu Islands on June 5, taking the bow from the cruiser Pittsburgh, tossing it "aside as if it were a matchbox to wallow in the storm off the ship's port side", and damaging 20 other warships. Most of the damaged ships, however, were back in action. Admiral Nimitz stated that the typhoon had done more damage than the Japanese in any single battle of the war.

The U. S. section of the Allied Control Commission had moved its headquarters from Frankfurt am Main to the American occupation zone of Berlin. The British section would also move to Berlin shortly. The American armed forces would continue to be headquartered at Frankfurt.

The British and Americans were set to take over food distribution to the 1.5 million Berliners in their sectors and the Russian responsibility for feeding would likewise cease the following Monday—just in time for the Trinity blast.

In the American zone, the Communist Party political rallies, previously approved by the Soviets when they occupied the area, would still be held on Sunday with the imprimatur of the Americans, though limited to a thousand persons per meeting.

Rain and stormy weather continued to dog the passage of the Augusta toward a port in northern Europe, with President Truman aboard, on his way to Potsdam.

William Green, president of AFL, Philip Murray, president of CIO, John Foster Dulles, future Secretary of State under President Eisenhower and adviser to the American delegation at San Francisco and foreign policy adviser to Governor Thomas Dewey during the 1944 presidential campaign, Governor Dewey, himself, and Norman Thomas, Socialist Party leader, all urged to the Senate quick ratification of the U. N. Charter.

A Senate-House compromise providing the Office of War Information a budget of 35 million dollars was approved in the House, with most of the opposition coming from Republicans, led by John Taber of New York, who unsuccessfully sought to cut the budget in half.

It was announced that the British had suffered 1,427,634 military and civilian casualties since the beginning of the war, through June 1.

The fifth installment of the excerpts from Hermann Goering's notebook appears, looking, post-Munich, at potential territorial changes, focusing on Ruthenia, claimed by Hungary, and a seat of potential rebellion against Soviet control of the Ukraine. On October 2, 1938, he had talked with the Polish Ambassador to Berlin, Joseph Lipski, anent Polish intentions, the Hungarian-Slovakian problem, and Ruthenia.

Striking newspaper printers and deliverers in five cities, New York, Bayonne, Jersey City, Birmingham, and Fort Wayne, Ind., cigar-makers in Tampa, coal miners in Illinois and Pennsylvania, all added to the burdens of work stoppage in the country, albeit reduced by 7,000 to 45,000. The coal miners in southern Illinois were protesting the shortage of meat. Normal milk deliveries resumed in Detroit for the first time since Monday.

Russian-born actress Alla Nazimova, star of many Hollywood epics, as well as plays by Henrik Ibsen and Eugene O'Neil, died in Los Angeles at age 66.

A photograph on the page shows General Carl Spaatz, one of the Mysterians, serving up a pile of hamburgers at the Ernie Pyle Servicemen's Club in Miami Beach. The General was at the beach for a rest.

On the editorial page, "The Great Test" expresses confidence that President Truman would handle himself well at the Potsdam Conference, in his first meeting with Prime Minister Churchill and Premier Stalin.

It asserts that the American people would feel likewise, having embraced the new President as the very embodiment of the homespun plainsman of Middle America who could get things done.

He appeared on his way to being able to garner the Democratic nomination for 1948. But, it pointed out, no Democrat who had succeeded to the presidency upon the death of the President, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, actually a Whig, or Andrew Johnson, had been elected President subsequently. Theodore Roosevelt and Calvin Coolidge both had, as Republicans. And, like Truman, Tyler, Fillmore, and Johnson had served in Congress, whereas TR and Coolidge had not.

"The Hungry Men" finds the feeding-frenzy feat of Pfc. Chester (The Stomach) Salvatori, who had bragged of consuming seven orders of chicken, ten orders of French fries, a mess of salads, two pieces of watermelon, and five slices of pie, to be quite unremarkable by comparison to Chief C. E. Wister, editor of The News proof desk.

In his prime, the Chief could go down to the Little Gem Restaurant and consume, with a compatriot, a whole bird pie of 32 quail, even if it had been cooked up for the greater News staff. Two whole chickens at a sitting plus an entire Pullman loaf of bread was standard fare. A dozen cups of coffee per day, once consuming 25 plus 25 fried ham sandwiches at the Gem, were also on the menu. Breakfast consisted of twelve Rocky Ford cantaloupes. (That's what it says.) "Shucks," he was quoted as saying, "I can eat six or seven now." A whole basket of grapes before breakfast, and an occasional snack of a six-pound turkey, kept his appetite satiated.

The Chief didn't brag on the former accomplishments, said he was just a hungry boy, at a time when the "Gem was retailing quail on toast at a dime, and a man could indulge himself."

Must have something to do with President Jim Clinton making toast for the Army and Navy. Or, with the former editorial?

Mr. Wister ate less now, was contented with three-quarters of a lemon pie and half a dozen

peaches after dinner.

He simply could not understand all the fuss about young Pfc. Salvatori.

This was before the days of hamburgers, as the piece informs, and so how many Big Macs he could throw down his pie hole is not disclosed.

But this here takes the cake and is downright repulsive.

"A Slight Error" reports that the public sentiment for Private Joe McGee, after it had become known that he was court-martialed and sentenced to two years in the brig for slapping German prisoners, was misplaced. He had, as a result, been set free by the Army after Congressional intervention. But, it turns out, the Army knew what it was about all along, as Private McGee had been sentenced for disobeying orders and defying discipline. He had suffered thirteen prior court martial convictions. His mental age was eleven, which suggested that he did not belong in the Army to begin with.

Now, Private McGee was once again in the brig, this time for going AWOL, getting drunk, and resisting arrest. It was not the first time for those charges.

The public and the newspapers had been gullible and duped.

"Not Copyrighted" remarks on the story appearing on Wednesday regarding the "Bitter Battle" of the Bitles successfully seeking to change their name to Biddle, in the face of contentious claims of bastardy by a Biddle of prominent rank in Philadelphia society. The attorney for the Bitles, however, had presented evidence of 175 Biddles in the city directory, including junk dealers and laborers and chauffeurs. (It carps, "down to lawyers..." Ha-ha-ha.)

It finds, however, that the judge, Eugene V. Alessandronia, had missed his opportunity, among the name changing, to become an Alexander.

The excerpt from the Congressional Record has Representative Leonard Allen of Louisiana urging President Truman to demand from Prime Minister Churchill that Great Britain send ground troops to fight against Japan. The prospect would hasten the decision, he offers, of Japan to quit the war.

Congressman Albert Engel of Michigan indicated that he, too, had initially possessed reservations as to whether Great Britain was doing its fair share, especially with respect to retaking Singapore. But when General Marshall had testified before the War Department Subcommittee, of which Mr. Engel was a member, the General assured that Britain was shouldering as much of the burden as it could.

Drew Pearson suggests that the appointment of Representative Carl Moran of Maine as Assistant Secretary of Labor meant a gradual move away from left-wing labor groups and no more clearing with Sidney Hillman of the CIO PAC policy relative to labor. Mr. Moran was a liberal New Dealer and pro-labor. But, at the same time, he would fight labor when their position was wrong. He was close friends with the counsel for the coal operators, Ed Burke, enemy of the UMW of John L. Lewis. Mr. Pearson notes that, eventually, Mr Moran would be named Undersecretary.

He next tells of Samuel Goldwyn being in the process of filming the life of General Eisenhower. One of the most important characters would be his mother, whose ancestors had immigrated from Germany via Switzerland. Mr. Goldwyn's mother had immigrated from Poland. Mrs. Eisenhower hated war and did not want Dwight to enter West Point. She had four other sons still living. Milton was president of Kansas State College. Arthur was vice-president of the Commerce Trust Co. of Kansas City. Earl was a prominent attorney. When someone in Abilene, Kans., remarked to her that she must be very proud of her son, upon his return from Europe to his hometown, she responded: "Which one?"

He next turns to the advice once provided by the late Wendell Willkie to President Roosevelt, to obtain commitments from allies while their "tears were hot". Mr. Willkie had stated: "As lawyers, you and I know that it pays to collect your fee while your client's tears are hot. Once their case is won, they forget. So now is the time to get commitments from our allies regarding what we want after the war."

Wendell, you can say that again.

Plans on governing Berlin could have been worked out a year earlier, but the War Department insisted on control of post-war Germany as against the diplomatic role of the European Advisory Committee and the State Department. Things had dragged on until Yalta, and by then the Russians were no longer in peril.

The lesson to be learned was with regard to Japan, that the present was the time to work things out with the Russians at Potsdam on how post-war Japan would be occupied, rather than waiting until the Pacific war was over.

Well, everybody was in for a Big Surprise. Harry had his hand firmly on the Tiller, more so than anyone then realized, outside a small coterie of scientists and upper level Government representatives.

Marquis Childs discusses the announcement by President Truman of three American international air routes to be operated by three competing companies, as recommended by the Civil Aeronautics Board. The decision had been delayed for some time to permit two Senators, Owen Brewster of Maine and Pat McCarran of Nevada, to advocate their position of a community airline service run by Pan-American Airways.

British reluctance to provide permission to fly into British Empire holdings around the world also had held up the decision. The British pointed out the unfair advantage which America had accumulated during the war with its vast industrial capability and production of not only bombers, as had been the exclusive lot of Britain, but also transport planes.

In the end, the momentum of the new air age was impelling the decision for competition in the field of international travel, as opposed to monopolistic control of the airways by one airline.

Samuel Grafton expresses the shock to the country that civilians could no longer occupy Pullman cars from New York to Washington, that there was a coal shortage coming in the winter, that grains could not be used after August 1 to produce beverage alcohol, those limitations despite the victory in Europe. All of it ran counter to expectations after V-E Day.

The situation in Europe was puzzling: Americans were leaving France without food or transportation while vowing to feed Berlin; Americans were leaving Italy in the grip of high inflation with all its attendant ills, including rampant prostitution.

The auto industry had been given the green light to resume production but had found itself short of necessary sheet metal, cadmium, and tin. It sought alleviation of these shortages from Washington.

Generally, the country was racing toward normalcy, in such pell-mell fashion that it appeared dangerous, for the obstacles to reconversion after such total war were real and unmistakable, and were of a global nature, not just at home. A more realistic view of the reconversion process needed to be understood.

A piece by the editors reports on the muddled and dangerous situation in Macedonia, the region which had sparked the Balkan wars of 1912 and 1913.

Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Greece had competing views on how Macedonia, part of which was in Serbian territory and part in Greece, should be treated, whether as an independent state, as desired by Tito, albeit one which would be a puppet of the Soviets, or to have a portion of it held by Greece. Several nationalities populated the territory, including Bulgars, Turks, Albanians, and Jews, in addition to Serbs and Greeks.

Complicating matters were the uncertain boundaries, given that Macedonia had not been an independent state in 2,000 years.

With Yugoslavia within the Soviet sphere of influence and Greece in the British sphere, the region held out the potential for breeding tense relations between Britain and the Soviet Union.

A piece culled from the Winston-Salem Sentinel, printed in The News of January 24, 1941, was reprinted by request. The January 24 printing was, itself, a reprinting from the preceding Friday, by request of R. E. Taylor—whether Robert E. Taylor, the infamous, we don't know—the credit for it being given to the "Pass the Peanuts" editors of the Sentinel, Pete Ivey and Stuart Rabb, the latter to replace W. J. Cash as Associate Editor of The News at the end of May, 1941, as Cash went to Mexico City on his Guggenheim Fellowship to write a novel about several generations of a cotton family of the Old South into Modern Times.

It is an advertisement for an auxiliary chalet de necessite, "good condition and reasonable", "complete with slab and riser" per State Sanitary Dept. Regulations.

The piece recognizes what the slab is, but wonders at the riser, finds it sounding "downright dangerous".

Well, shucks, everybody knows what the riser is. It's the built-in cigar holder.

But was there a fan?

A quote of the day from Frank Sinatra to Pope Pius, apparently with its contextual explanation clipped from the bottom of the page: "That's not my racket."

Anyhow, we remind that this was the first Friday the 13th since the dark Friday the 13th of April, 1945, that in turn having been the first since October 13, 1944.

Remember to watch your parking meters.

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