Saturday, July 22, 1944

The Charlotte News

Saturday, July 22, 1944


Site Ed. Note: The front page reports that Senator Harry Truman, as the band played the "Missouri Waltz", had defeated Henry Wallace on the third ballot for the Democratic vice-presidential nomination at the convention in Chicago. Vice-President Wallace had won a plurality of votes on the first ballot, 429.5 to 319.5. The remainder of the 1,176 delegate votes had been split between various candidates: Senator John Bankhead of Alabama, 98; Senator Scott Lucas of Illinois, 61; Senate Majority Leader Alben Barkley of Kentucky, 49.5; Governor J. Melville Broughton of North Carolina, 40; Manpower Coordinator Paul McNutt, 31; and Governor Prentiss Cooper of Tennessee, 26, with the remaining 118.5 votes being distributed among miscellaneous candidates. On the second ballot, the two primary candidates had run neck and neck with Wallace outpacing Truman by a nose, 477.5 to 473. The bulk of the delegates bolted on the third ballot to give Senator Truman 1,031 votes, Vice-President Wallace 105, Prentiss Cooper, 26, Justice William O. Douglas, 4, and Paul McNutt, 1.

The nomination of the President on Thursday had likewise not been unanimous, with 89 votes having been registered for Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia and one for Jim Farley, those being protest votes following the plans of the Texas revolt.

From Germany, it was reported that Hitler had announced in a speech that the revolt by what he described as a small coterie of "unscrupulous" Army officers had been quelled through execution and arrest. Visitors to Berlin stated that perhaps a hundred officers had been executed and a thousand more persons arrested since Thursday.

Whether Hitler's tattered pants had been mended was not yet reported.

German Army morale was said to be low, news of the squabble in the ranks of officers having reached even the lowest private fighting in Normandy.

Marshal Pietro Badoglio in Italy declared that the revolt signaled the facts that the German Army could no longer stop the Russian Army and that the Germans no longer had reserves to throw into Normandy. He made no comment on the first anniversary of the coup which overthrew Mussolini other than to state that Italy was the first of the Axis countries to break with the Nazis, though he termed Italy to have been only a "satellite".

In Italy, the Fifth and Eighth armies closed on Florence from three directions, being within 14 miles of the city from the south. The Fifth Army captured Tavernelle, Barberino Dai D'Elsa, and Capanne, as well as Castel Florentino, 17 miles southwest of Florence. On the west coast, American patrols reached to within four miles of Pisa.

In Poland, Red Army forces were reported pressing forward in a furious drive, only 90 miles from Warsaw, surrounding Brest-Litovsk. Advancing nine or more miles beyond the Bug River, the Russians took Sawin, 36 miles east of Lublin and 62 miles from the headwaters of the Vistula River.

In the Baltic States, Col. General Ivan Maslennikov's troops captured Ostrov and outflanked Pskov, while occupying Tishina, seven miles from the Latvian border. Fighting had also resumed on the Karelian Isthmus of Finland.

In the south, the Soviet troops continued to batter Lwow while troops reached Buezaez, south of Tarnopol and northeast of the mountain passes leading to Hungary.

The Normandy front was reported in a state of lull because of heavy rains, virtually halting all ground operations and preventing all air operations from England.

Between 500 and 750 American heavy bombers, however, flew from Italy to hit the Ploesti oilfields in Rumania.

The night before, RAF Mosquitos bombed Berlin as Italian-based bombers hit an oil refinery at Pardubice in Czechoslovakia.

Luftwaffe training was reported to have been stopped in Germany and fuel was in such short supply as to be rationed to the point of inefficiency.

On Guam, the American forces of Marines and Army infantry were moving fast to capture Port Apra, key to the island's defenses. The American troops had established easily won beachheads to the north and south of the port, permitting Marines to scale heights to the rear of the harbor. Thus far, there had been only light casualties. The Navy and air bombardment which had preceded the invasion for seventeen days and which immediately preceded the landings had blasted the Japanese from the shore defenses inland. The American forces were meeting stiffened resistance, however, as they moved inland, but were led by tanks and covered by artillery at their backs.

From Japan came the news that General Kuniaki Koiso had been named Premier, rendering in error the initial reports Thursday that General Koiso and Admiral Yonai would become co-Premiers. Admiral Yonai, who had been assigned along with Koiso to form a new Cabinet after the fall of Tojo and his Cabinet, would become Navy Minister in the new Government. The new Cabinet retained two members of the Tojo Cabinet. As indicated two days earlier, Koiso had long been an advocate of Japanese expansionism and had been a primary architect of the move southward in the Pacific to take French and Dutch possessions.

The Navy announced the loss of two submarines in the Pacific, the Trout and the Tullibee. The Trout had carried away gold and other valuables of the Philippine Government in the days preceding the fall of the Philippines to the Japanese in spring 1942. The loss brought the total of lost subs since the beginning of the war to 27.

An appellate court having overturned the convictions of several previously convicted individuals for harboring convicted and executed Nazi saboteur Herbert Hans Haupt, Otto Richard Wergin and Walter Otto Froehling, previously sentenced to death, pleaded guilty to misprision of treason and were sentenced to five years each in prison, while their wives, previously sentenced to 25 years, were discharged from custody. Herr Haupt's mother was also discharged, but was ordered interned for the duration of the war and stipulated that her citizenship would be revoked. Hans Max Haupt, father of the saboteur, had already been convicted in a second trial and sentenced to life imprisonment.

And, a full-page advertisement from Robeson County pays tribute to the women of the county who had helped the war effort by canning during 1943. It having caught our eyne while whizzing past on the machine, it is only fitting that we pass it on to the reader, to jar you or not.

On the editorial page, "Truman", while giving praise to the service of Vice-President Wallace as an honest and sincere steward of humanity, finds the choice of Senator Truman for the vice-presidency to be a good one, placing a man in the position who had the practical mind to deal with the nuts and bolts issues after the war should he be thrust into the role of President.

The editorial frankly considers the prospect of the President's death by illness should he be re-elected. It expresses the belief that the Senator from Missouri could step into the executive shoes and perform admirably.

"Brest-Litovsk" recounts, with Brest-Litovsk once again in the news, the history of the Treaty of March, 1918 between the Russians and the Germans, enabling the Germans to transfer several divisions to Belgium and France and start a drive on the Western Front which almost led to victory for the Kaiser.

The Treaty had begun as a concession to the backers of the Bolshevik Revolution of November, 1917 who had brought in the new regime to achieve peace. Eventually, the Russians, after urging from President Wilson to remain firm in resisting a separate peace with Germany, cut off negotiations and agreed not to make war or peace with the Germans.

Germany then intitiated war on February 18, and on March 3 the Treaty was signed. Under its terms Russia was forced to evacuate the Ukraine, Finland, Poland, and the Baltic States. Russia also recognized the German-Ukrainian Treaty also signed at the conference, ceded back to Turkey territories in the Caucasus, and agreed to provide Germany preferred foreign trade status.

The Treaty showed the world the motives of Germany in the war, to dictate terms of peace, and thus had propaganda value for the Allies.

"Dr. Broach" welcomes a new pastor to St. John's Baptist Church in Charlotte from his former pastoral duties at the Baptist Church in Covington, Ky.

"Money" comments on the hopeful olive branch to the world offered by the resolution adopted at the Bretton Woods Conference to establish a world bank with an eight-billior dollar asset base to make loans to rebuild war-torn countries and to stabilize post-war currencies and trade.

The editorial finds the fact that representatives of 45 nations with diverse economic interests could come together and reach a resolution on a topic as controversial as money to have been a positive sign for the future.

Dorothy Thompson--anticipating a Washington conference of the Big Four powers which would not materialize until January and February, instead at Malta and Yalta, trips which would be the death knell to President Roosevelt's health-- discusses the plans on at war's end.

One proposal was to divide it into five parts, after ceding East Prussia to one or both of Russia and Poland, another part of East Germany to Poland, including probably Silesia and the territory east of the Oder River, and displacing the Germans who constituted nearly the entire population of these territories into the new German state.

More likely, there would be three major spheres occupied by each of Russia, the U.S., and Great Britain, with delegation of military power to France, Poland, the Netherlands, and other allied governments.

The question had also arisen as to the disposition of the Kiel Canal and Schleswig-Holstein, properly belonging to Denmark as late as 1864. But the Danes had eschewed any acquisitorial desire and so it was likely these areas, per the President's suggestion at Tehran, would be internationalized, meaning primarily allowing the Soviets use of the Kiel Canal as a means of access to the Atlantic.

The primary problem to be solved with these plans, however, was lebensraum, how to provide for the additional ten to twelve million Germans to be sent back into the Reich from the occupied territories, expanding the pre-1939 population of Germany from 65 million, and to be placed in a territory much smaller than the pre-1939 Germany, all with its industrial areas taken from its control and its least populated frontiers ceded to Poland and Russia.

She would continue the thesis on Monday. Thus far, she has neglected the issue of the many millions no longer living who were within the population of the Reich in 1939, either killed by the war or murdered by the Nazis.

Marquis Childs looks at the different approaches to politics within the Democratic Party, the more discreet, finessed approach of the party regulars in contrast to the rolled-up shirtsleeves approach of Sidney Hillman's CIO Political Action Committee, taking fire from the party bosses for being amateurish in its brash tactics. The differences had come into the open with the fight over the vice-presidential nomination, the regulars wishing to let Henry Wallace down easily, without stirring any whimper of party disunity or overbearing from the top, while Philip Murray of the CIO had demanded a yes or no vote on Wallace from the Pennsylvania delegation.

Samuel Grafton contrasts the Republican Convention's buzz about foreign policy plank construction with the Democrats who had no differences at all on foreign policy. He did not hear a word about it during the Democratic Convention. He finds it illuminating of the unity across the country on foreign policy when the group considering it was comprised of a diverse cross-section of the country, as were the Democrats. It was only when, as with the Republicans, the group consisted exclusively of a particular part of the country, those from mid-sized towns in the Midwest who were also middle class, that there were heard many differences over foreign policy. The overwheleming majority of the country was behind the Administration on this critical subject.

Dick Young finds the absence of the vox populi at the City Council meetings in Charlotte of late to give rise to memories of earlier days before the war got going in full swagger, when the Council chambers were full of irate citizens protesting Sunday blue laws or the undue regulation of buttermilk, and other such issues of weight. Now, there was only occasionally the soldiers coming from Morris Field to urge more strict enforcement against prostitution and the banning of sales of beer and wine on Sundays. Otherwise, it was inducement to somnolence.

Drew Pearson discusses the divided politics of Chicago Mayor Ed Kelly, backing Roosevelt but also backing Governor Dwight Green for re-election. He was perceived to have cut a deal with the Chicago Tribune to back Green in exchange for support of his own continued regime. Meanwhile, the isolationist Tribune ridiculed the Administration and the Democratic Convention which the city had hosted.

He next discusses the determination of the President to allow, in typical FDR fashion, the forces behind Vice-President Wallace and War Mobilizer James Byrnes to fight it out for the vice-presidential nomination with either a clear-cut winner to come from the scrap or a compromise reached on Harry Truman. Both Byrnes and Wallace had sought the President's advice on whether to run for the nomination; both had been given the green light. The President, says Mr. Pearson, was tired of the criticism that he was bossing the convention delegates.

He devotes the remainder of his column to various convention tidbits. Among them, he relates of Helen Gahagan Douglas, running for Congress--her first of three terms, later to be branded the "Pink Lady" in her run for the Senate in 1950 against Congressman Richard Nixon--, being too concerned about the fate of Vice-President Wallace to be nervous about being charged with the responsibility of delivering a responsive speech to that of Clare Boothe Luce.

Governor J. Melville Broughton of North Carolina had addressed the issue of race at a banquet for North Carolina politicos. He began by expressing delight that there were black waiters present and the desire that they listen to what he had to say. He then suggested that North Carolina had adopted fairness in dealing with race and that the problems were not ones to be solved by Chicago or New York. Mr. Pearson relates that black waiters at the banquet shook the Governor's hand afterward.

Not to sow the seeds for sour grapes, but it was unlikely that the Chicago waiters knew of the Governor's sloth and vacillation in ordering an investigation three years earlier into the shooting incident in Roxboro, when several blacks arrived from a nearby Civilian Conservation Corps camp with baseball bats and sticks to resist the attempts of a group of white rowdies determined to act as a lynch mob for a black man inside the Roxboro jail. He had initially directed the investigation of the CCC men, delaying for a fortnight the start of the investigation into the white men who precipitated the melee, until the newspapers of the state rose up in a chorus of challenge. He finally acquiesced and five of the lynch mob, albeit not the principal organizers, were brought to justice, but only to be paroled by Governor Broughton after serving ninety days.

The waiters might have wished to wipe their hands on some old dishrags after the handshakes had they understood the truth about old Southern paternalism. But that was 1944 and few looked askance obviously at Governor Broughton's form of racial idealism, better than that of the later firebreathing likes of George Wallace and Lester Maddox, but only marginally so.

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