The Charlotte News
Saturday, March 19, 1955
Site Ed. Note: The front page reports that Senate Minority Leader William Knowland had stated this date that he would press for publication by the Government of official reports on the wartime Tehran and Potsdam conferences, days after release of the report on the Yalta conference of February, 1945. He said that he viewed it as merely coincidental that the reports would become public as the 1956 presidential campaign was getting underway. State Department officials had said the previous day that adverse world reaction to the disclosure of the report on the Yalta conference had caused abandonment of plans to publish reports on the Potsdam, Tehran and Cairo conferences, taking place, respectively, in July, 1945, with President Truman representing the U.S., and in November and December 1943, with FDR representing the country. Senator Knowland said that he would demand that the latter decision by the State Department be reversed, and predicted that those three reports would come out the following year. Senator John Sparkman of Alabama said in a separate interview that he believed the political impact of the Yalta record had been a "dud" insofar as the Republicans were concerned, and welcomed publication of the records of Tehran and Potsdam. The Tehran conference had been the first meeting together of all three wartime leaders, FDR, Prime Minister Churchill and Joseph Stalin, dealing primarily with plans for a second front to be established in Europe, to take the pressure off the Russians fighting in Russia against Germany. There had also been a pledge for a postwar recall of occupation troops in Iran and underwriting of the arming of Yugoslav guerrillas. At Potsdam, President Truman had first met with both Premier Stalin and Prime Minister Churchill, who was replaced during the conference at home in the first general election in ten years by Prime Minister Clement Attlee. It was during that conference that the first successful test of the atomic bomb had occurred near Los Alamos, N.M. Surrender terms for Japan had been agreed upon at the conference, as well as plans for the administration of Germany, following its unconditional surrender the prior May 8. The State Department had said the previous day that secret wartime documents regarding U.S. relations with China also would be published. The Truman Administration had published a 1,000-word "white paper" defending U.S. policy toward China, attacked by many Republicans.
The President this date announced that he had created a new post of special assistant to the President for disarmament, naming Harold Stassen, currently foreign operations administrator in charge of foreign aid, to the new job which would have Cabinet rank. A White House announcement said that Mr. Stassen would take over his new duties immediately, and would be expected to take into account the full implications of new weapons in the possession of other nations, as well as those of the U.S., to consider future probabilities of armaments and to weigh the views of the military, civilians and officials of the Government and of other governments. Press secretary James Hagerty said that Mr. Stassen would remain as head of FOA until the Administration's new foreign aid program was presented to Congress, and then would resign. FOA was scheduled to go out of existence at the end of the fiscal year. Mr. Hagerty said that Mr. Stassen would attend meetings of the National Security Council and the Cabinet would draw on the NSC's planning staff for assistance in formulating policies, and eventually Mr. Stassen would probably create his own organization of a size yet to be determined. The formulated policies, once approved by the NSC and the President, would become basic policy on the question of disarmament. Mr. Hagerty believed it was the first such position on disarmament ever established by any government.
Attorney General Herbert Brownell was prepared to lift present immigration barriers and rule that it was in the national interest to admit some 20 Russian seamen who had deserted their ship after it had been seized off Formosa by Chinese Nationalists. The action was virtually certain to provoke protests from Russia, which had been demanding return of the men and their ship. The defectors were part of a 48-man crew aboard a tanker captured the prior June 23 by Nationalist destroyers. They remained in Nationalist custody. Under the asylum plan, they would be screened rigorously to ensure that there were no diehard Communists or security risks among them before they were allowed to enter the U.S. Secretary of State Dulles was reported to have favored admitting them, which he believed would encourage other Soviet sailors to defect, causing concern in Moscow about the loyalty of Soviet ship crews. The Attorney General had initially opposed the asylum plan, fearing that it would add to the already heavy workload handled by the FBI, but after numerous conferences, had reportedly relaxed his stand and was ready to grant the temporary visas, while making it clear that the length of their stay would depend on their behavior while in the U.S.
The President said this date that he would view with "gravest apprehension" any pay increase for postal workers in excess of a House bill's proposal for an average 7.5 percent increase. The House was set to vote on a pay increase bill the following Monday. The Senate Post Office Committee had recommended a proposed 10 percent postal pay increase and a strong move was on in the House to vote for a similar increase. The President had stated in a letter to Representative Tom Murray of Tennessee that he was concerned about the 7.5 percent increase approved by the House Post Office Committee, of which Mr. Murray was chairman, because of its fiscal impact. The President had vetoed a 5 percent pay increase for postal and civil service workers the previous year on the basis that the bill did not include postal rate increases to help offset the cost of the pay increases. The Administration had recommended in 1955 a 5 percent postal pay increase along with various pay adjustments and reclassifications which would make the overall raise average about 6.5 percent. The bill approved by the House Committee called for a minimum increase of 6 percent, with upward adjustments for about 60 percent of the postal employees, to make the average increase 7.5 percent.
In Glasgow, Scotland, about 1,000 hymn-singing Scotsmen greeted evangelist Billy Graham as he began his six-week religious crusade in Scotland. He said that he came to the nation as an humble person, frightened at the great responsibility placed on him. At a press conference, he told 150 reporters that he was avoiding tricky questions, and proceeded to refuse to discuss Princess Margaret's reported romance with a commoner, the political aspects of producing hydrogen bombs, the worth of a three-power conference, or the prospects of projected international prize fights. He said that his story was the Bible. He related of having been awakened from bed aboard his train as they pulled into the Dumfries station, with the crowd singing a hymn, and that he had put on a coat over his pajamas and leaned from the window, whereupon the crowd urged him to come onto the platform, at which point he had to explain that he only had on his pajamas "in the nether regions", such that he got his first glimpse of Scotland leaning from a train window. At the Glasgow station, another crowd greeted him singing another hymn, and he obtained a cup of coffee at the station restaurant, from which the police had excluded most of the crowd, and found the coffee excellent. He would begin speaking on Monday night in a hall which would hold 14,500 people.
In Atlanta, it was reported that a frustrated attempt to blast underground cables with a firebomb was among the acts of sabotage under investigation this date in the continuing strike by Southern Bell Telephone Co. employees, members of the Communications Workers of America union. The attempted firebombing was discovered the previous day in a manhole under an Atlanta street, with police indicating that a gasoline bomb had failed to detonate because an oil-soaked rag used as a fuse had become dislodged, despite the wick having been ignited. The union had discouraged such acts of sabotage by members and disclaimed any knowledge or action in the several events involving damage to company equipment and cutting of cables. The district manager of Southern Bell's Atlanta office said that a total of 57 cables had been slashed, shot or otherwise damaged since the beginning of the strike. In Birmingham, a Southern Bell janitor had reported that a brick had been thrown through a window of his home, with a note attached reading, "Keep off job." In Jackson, Miss., Southern Bell had disconnected telephones in the homes of several strikers on the grounds that they had been making "nuisance calls" at a rapid rate, designed to clog switchboards.
In St. Louis, a divorced couple returned home early this date, ending an intensive police search for them, based on the belief that a man was forcing his former wife and child to go with him to Canada. The man, a 21-year old suspended policeman of suburban Ferguson, said that it had all been a terrible mistake and he had not meant to cause all of the trouble. The search had begun the previous day after the discovery of a note in a vacated motel room in Madison, Wisc., which read: "Please call police. This man is wanted in St. Louis. Help me. Help. Tell police he is headed for the Canadian border. He has kidnaped me. Help. Please help." The former wife would not discuss the note, but the former husband contended that it had been the result of a lover's quarrel. She had told officers that she did not remarry during the trip but planned to do so later, that she and the baby were tired but unharmed and had remained overnight at the home of the husband's parents. The husband had been suspended from the police force and later indicted by a grand jury on a charge of assault with intent to do bodily harm, having been accused of severely beating a handcuffed prisoner following a tavern brawl between the prisoner and the suspended officer's father. He said that he had been divorced from his wife the previous Friday, that he had gone to her apartment southwest of St. Louis on Wednesday night and they had agreed to get back together, that the disorder left in her apartment had not been the result of a struggle but from a hurried packing job.
An Army private from Harmony, N.C., was hospitalized at the Army's Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, reportedly suffering from a serious illness, with the hospital spokesman declining to provide the specific nature of the illness. Earlier, it had been reported that he suffered from hemophilia, and blood had been sent to him from South Carolina via shuttle plane service while he had been stationed at Camp Gordon near Augusta, Ga. A doctor in Columbia, S.C., had heard that he had been a patient in the North Carolina Memorial Hospital in Chapel Hill prior to entering the Army, and had reportedly received 64 pints of whole blood after he had obtained a nosebleed.
In Charleston, S.C., it was reported that John W. Davis, 81, the constitutional lawyer and 1924 Democratic presidential nominee, who had argued, both in December, 1952 and on reargument in December, 1953, for South Carolina's Clarendon County School Board in Brown v. Board of Education, in opposition to abandonment of the "separate-but-equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson, was "quite sick" and in the hospital in Charleston where he had been a patient for almost a week.
In El Paso, Tex., it was reported that an Air Force lieutenant and his copilot had prepared to bail out of a B-25 the previous night as the plane's two engines had gone dead from carburetor icing, while it flew at 17,000 feet above Columbus, N.M., having appeared to be heading for a crash when "something of a miracle" had occurred, according to the public information officer at Biggs Air Force Base, as both engines suddenly came to life again. The pilots had rushed back to their seats and safely landed the plane at the airbase.
In Bessemer City, N.C., an unemployed textile worker was held in the fatal shooting of his wife this date, with police indicating that he would be charged with murder, after his wife had died about two hours after he had shot her with a 12-gauge shotgun in the left side, the man contending that the gun had been lying on a bed and that he inadvertently struck it as he walked by, causing it to discharge.
In Kerrville, Tex., a Navy sailor who had been married to a woman the previous April but was now courting a 19-year old whom he had met while on a furlough in England, said that he and the young woman saw nothing improper in their acquaintanceship despite his prior marriage. The motorcycle-riding waitress who was his wife called her husband's claims that they had lived together only for three weeks after the marriage as another one of "those tall Texas lies". She claimed they had been living together the night before he left for Texas, where he had been only for the previous ten days during his 30-day leave from the Navy. He and the young woman from England had spoken of getting married, but both said they had no present plans for doing so, were still getting acquainted at the ranch home of the man's widowed sister. The wife, however, said that she had no intention of getting a divorce, that she would "make him sweat". Meanwhile, the young woman from England was dating other men, and Lothario did not like it, but said it was none of his business. A photograph appears of the once happy couple in their motorcycle-riding outfits. They just go…
Not on the front page, in the NCAA basketball tournament in Kansas City, the University of San Francisco, led by its stars, Bill Russell and K. C. Jones, won the national championship this night by defeating defending national champion La Salle University, 77 to 63. The University of Colorado won the third-place consolation game by defeating the University of Iowa, 75 to 54.
Here in 2022 this night, it is three down and three to go...
On the editorial page, "Riding a Money-Go-Round Too Far" indicates that by increasing income taxes at present, the state would be applying fiscal brakes which could hold back the economic growth of the state for years, at a time when the entire South was seeking to attract new industry and new capital.
But that was what the bill proposed by State Senator Robert Morgan, future U.S. Senator and State Attorney General, had done, seeking to increase by one percentage point the amount of income tax across all brackets, affecting both individuals and corporations, raising the latter rates by a percent on all net profits over $25,000. A similar measure had been introduced in the State House.
It indicates that visiting industrialists thinking of locating in the state were already concerned about the taxes, and increasing them would likely eliminate the state from the lists of companies thinking of locating in the state. By driving away new industry, jobs would be denied at home to the youth of the state and per capita income would be driven even lower than it was presently.
The one percent increase on taxable income in excess of $25,000 for businesses for the 1952 income tax year would have resulted in an average increase in cost of operations of $24,720.
It suggests that the General Assembly, in reaching for new sources of revenue, should avoid increasing state taxes and look elsewhere, for the sake of industrial development in the state.
"Bubbling Pots & Political Maturity" indicates that the U.S. public had not heard the last of Democratic proposals for a $20 per individual Federal income tax reduction, as politics would keep the matter alive.
Part of the reason for the effort was not just to relieve lower-bracket taxpayers, something which was desirable, but also was designed to embarrass the President, who did not want such a reduction of tax revenue at a time of deficit spending. Senators Kerr Scott of North Carolina and Olin Johnston of South Carolina had undertaken the effort to pass the tax cut cheerfully, despite it resulting in increased deficit financing. Senators Sam Ervin of North Carolina and Strom Thurmond of South Carolina had voted against it, because it did not provide for any offsetting revenue to make up for its loss. But all four Senators from the Carolinas had voted together for the earlier and more important substitute measure, and in so doing, had shown little evidence of political restraint or maturity, simply following the strategy of the Democratic leadership.
"The Choke, the Gurgle &
the Sob" indicates that the word was out that singing was passé
in American show business, that a dimple, a plunging neckline and a
wiggle were also not enough. A New York music publisher had stated
that to be a singer, one needed to have a "new sound". It
quoted Phil Moore, noted vocal coach, as having said: "Bend a
note, hold it too long, fall off it, slur it, grind your teeth, sob,
snort, plead, whisper—do anything
It suggests that his method was
catching on fast. It finds example in a recent variety show on
television wherein a youngster was singing "You'll Never Walk
Alone" at the top of his lungs, and in the last few bars, had
all but strangled on the last evocation of "Never". It
finds that he was only doing what Mr. Moore had advocated, a new
sound, which in this instance was the choke. It also says that there
was the howl and the hiccup, the latter employed by a sister team,
who made "No More" come out sounding like "Nuh-oh
It concludes that there was no end to the "new sounds" which could be conjured, such as the snort and the snore, the latter being appropriate for the Brahms "Lullaby", or the squeak and the squawk and the grunt and the groan, or even the burp. It finds that one day, someone would purposely step on a pincushion and transcribe the oral reaction into song, resulting in the person making a fortune.
"Control" indicates that it had read somewhere that an enlightened population was the surest guarantee against harmful legislation, but that in a recent man-on-the-street interview about the state's milk price bill, the only respondents who had indicated approval of it had stated that they thought the price of milk ought to be controlled because milk was a household necessity, not understanding that it was going to be controlled upward.
A piece from the Greensboro Daily News, titled "America as Others See Her", indicates that evangelist Billy Graham had said that America ought to do something about the bad and false impression which many foreigners had of it, as a land of murder, crime, violence, sexual excesses and general immorality, as portrayed by the press, tourists and the movies.
The piece finds the criticism apt for the most part, that the press, by its nature, was concerned with the spectacular, which the worst part of it played up unconscionably while the better part kept it in proper perspective. Tourists in foreign lands were likely to look worse and do worse than if they were at home, and the movies reveled in crime and luxurious living, not presenting a balanced or accurate picture of American life. Thus, if foreigners took those things seriously, it was no wonder that they believed America was a country with cities attacked by gangsters within and Indians without, or that the South was a region where the magnolia tree grew "equipped with a noose for the lynching party".
It indicates that literature also caused confusion, with the South being the chief victim abroad, that when a writer such as Erskine Caldwell skillfully combined sin, sex and the South in his writings, his sales soared, resulting in dissemination of an essentially false and defamatory picture of the region around the globe.
It finds that the answer to the problem was not banning or suppressing such presentations, but rather substituting fact for fantasy so that the true picture could emerge in the long-run. It presents a list of books which acted collectively as a counterweight to mendacity, including Red Hills and Cotton by Ben Robertson, John Brown's Body by Stephen Vincent Benet, The Mind of the South by W. J. Cash, The South in American Literature by Jay B. Hubbell, No Day of Triumph by J. Saunders Redding, and A Southerner Discovers the South by Jonathan Daniels.
"America is in a strange position. She needs to convince the world that she is not as indecently glamorous as she has painted herself. The truth is that she is a nice girl who has 'made herself up' to look like a streetwalker."
Perhaps the first thing which ought be done is to abandon the notion that ships, cars and regions of the country were feminine, so that every person with very little brainpower working in their head would no longer become instantly defensive and incensed at the notion of attacking their region of the country through just criticism, tantamount to attacking one's mother, sister, girlfriend or wife, because it was a "she" and "her" honor had thus been sullied, worthy of cause and laying down of the gauntlet, pursuant to the rules of code duello.
Drew Pearson tells of the CIA being convinced that Chinese Communist Premier and Foreign Minister Chou En-lai would carry out his threat to attack Formosa, but not by a fleet of Chinese junks, that instead the attack would be made with long-range Russian rockets. The CIA had reached that conclusion because Russia had delivered several of its latest such missiles to Communist China at least eight months earlier and Soviet experts were presently training Chinese crews to operate them. It was also known that Russia had turned over squadrons of fast IL-28 jet bombers and improved MIG-17 jet fighters to the Chinese. That suggested the probability that Russia wanted a limited war in the Far East to test the new weaponry, while another nation did the fighting and dying. Mr. Pearson also asserts that it could explain why Chou had been so belligerent in threatening Formosa, that he would now lose face in the Orient if he failed to follow through. The CIA had warned that June and July would be the critical months when such an attack could occur.
Mr. Pearson asserts that the real significance was that a rocket attack on Formosa would likely draw the U.S. into a shooting war with Communist China, as both the President and Secretary of State Dulles had stated that they would use atomic bombs on the Chinese mainland in the event of hostilities conducted around Formosa. He notes that it was the intelligence reports on China's long-range rockets which had helped reverse Secretary Dulles's thinking on Formosa, that in the past he had discounted the possibility of attack on the island nation, knowing that an amphibious assault on it could not possibly get by the U.S. Seventh Fleet.
The Administration's campaign to turn Government business over to private business was becoming embroiled in politics, with a private real estate broker, for the first time in history, being retained to sell a large Government factory, but resulting in more haggling over who would be that broker than over the appointment of a postmaster. The factory in question was located at Newcastle, Pa., where United Engineering & Foundry of Pittsburgh made forging and steel castings, an operation to be abandoned at the end of March, resulting in the 20 million dollar factory coming up for sale. Usually, such surplus Government factories were advertised in various newspapers, and the General Services Administration then negotiated or sold the factory to the highest bidder without any realtor entering the picture. But supporters of the President had devised a plan whereby they would retain real estate brokers, which, in the case of the Newcastle plant, would render a commission of $117,000 for that broker. While it was sound business practice, when the RNC had to approve the broker and when Republican Senators from the appointed broker's state had to approve of the appointment, sound American business principles ended and politics began.
Eventually, GSA had chosen a broker from Pittsburgh, and trouble had immediately begun, with the special assistant to the GSA administrator having intervened, protesting that the selection had not been cleared by the two Republican Senators from Pennsylvania. An assistant to Senator James Duff of Pennsylvania had suggested that the appointee was tainted with scandal by having been a state appraiser in a land deal in which he had purchased some land he knew was about to be purchased by the state. The RNC then got into the act and also denounced the appointment, but the GSA administrator checked with the State Attorney General of Pennsylvania, who then provided a clean bill of health to the appointee and he eventually got the job as broker.
The reason for the problems, suggests Mr. Pearson, was pure politics, because the appointee had been involved in a political campaign two years earlier to become mayor of Pittsburgh, at which time the land deal issue had not emerged. He had also been the state appraiser for a dozen years and still was, under the Democratic Governor. But the other Senator from Pennsylvania, Ed Martin, had his own candidate in mind for the job and so his office had leaked adverse information about the appointee. Mr. Pearson notes that the GSA administrator might have saved himself headaches by discussing the matter with the Pennsylvania Congressman for Newcastle, Frank Clark, who had phoned several times, expressing concern about the people who would be losing jobs when the factory was closed at the end of March. But there had been a good reason why the GSA administrator had not sought to talk to him, as he was a Democrat.
Joseph Alsop, in Hong Kong, foresees the likelihood of an atomic war over the Nationalist Chinese offshore islands of Quemoy and Matsu. The U.S. currently was weak in its Far East defenses in both air and land-based power, having 500 planes less than there had been at the start of the Korean War in June, 1950, and with no bombers except for a group of B-36's on Guam, the pilots of which were trained only for atomic warfare and so carrying conventional bombs, would not be able to hit even large targets. The Nationalist Chinese had only one unprepared group of F-86 fighter planes and one obsolete group of F-84's. The Communists, meanwhile, had a powerful air force massed in the Chinese complex of Chekiang and Kiangsi Provinces.
In addition, U.S. policy was so confused regarding its willingness to defend Quemoy and Matsu that the Communists would not hesitate to attack them in the spring, as observers in Hong Kong were predicting.
Only the U.S. Seventh Fleet could hope to attack the Communist airbases and thus win the air war. The Navy leaders claimed they could do the job, but history showed that sending a carrier-based air force against a land-based force was quite risky, made the greater as the Communists were prepared to use the Ilyushin-28 jet bombers, almost as fast as the U.S. carrier-borne fighters.
Winning the fight for Quemoy and Matsu, if the U.S. were to become involved in defending those islands, was mandatory to avoid the perception of weakness throughout Asia, with disastrous results. Thus, Mr. Alsop foresees a situation wherein the resort to atomic weapons to win such a war would be inevitable as the only realistic recourse available. While the President and his Administration did not want a war and certainly not an atomic war, the U.S. weakness could result in an atomic war irrespective of those desires.
The Florida Flambeau, student newspaper of Florida State University, in interviews with nine Southern college newspaper editors regarding the issue of segregation in higher education, had found that seven believed it was on the way out, with the Daily Tar Heel of UNC, edited by future News reporter and feature writer Charles Kuralt, later of CBS, asserting the belief that desegregation would be "no problem when it comes", that the UNC delegate the prior August to the National Student Association meeting had introduced a resolution condemning segregation at the college level, and that a small group of students on campus were working to bring undergraduate segregation to an end prior to the Supreme Court declaring that it would have to be ended.
The Red & Black of the University of Georgia said that the University was not presently ready for integration, that the majority of the students would likely oppose it because of the trouble it might cause. But most of the students with whom the editor had discussed the issue were of the opinion that segregation could not endure indefinitely in any state.
The University of Alabama student newspaper, the Crimson-White, believed segregation would end sooner than most cared to think.
The Alligator of the University of Florida asserted that there had to be middle ground, with compromise, before the issue of segregation could be resolved, that it was just as naïve to assume that blacks had equal opportunity as it was to believe that the mores of the people could be changed overnight, that time and patience had to be the tools to solve the problems.
The Orange & White of the University of Tennessee stated that students of the University had indicated their opinion in a sample poll the previous spring, favoring, by a majority of four to one, the abandonment of the separate-but-equal doctrine by the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education. It said that most of the students were proud that the Tennessee Legislature had not sought to circumvent the decision regarding the eventual need for desegregation of the public schools of the state to comport with Fourteenth Amendment Equal Protection.
The Hurricane of the University of Miami stated that the newspaper had been flooded with letters for the previous six weeks concerning segregation and the general feeling communicated was "hang the law, let's see some action."
The Reflector of Mississippi State College suggested that unless some drastic action were taken by the Supreme Court, the Legislature or the people, integration would take place in Mississippi within between 20 and 50 years hence. It stated its opinion that integration should occur gradually and that the Court had hurt the chances for integration with its decree in Brown.
The Wheel of Emory University in Atlanta stated that many people agreed that segregation was on the way out and had to fall, but that those same people often continued to support segregation even when "the boilers have exploded and the ship is on its way down." It opined that private schools, especially those with a record of open-minded thought, had to lead the way to integration, as the least trouble would be encountered in those institutions.
The Daily Texan of the University of Texas at Austin stated that the attitude of the students had been progressive, that while there were some who took a narrow view, neither left nor right, more realized that there was inequality in education and were made uncomfortable and dissatisfied by that fact, with most realizing that segregation was on the way out and sought the easiest way to "uproot the old Southern educational mores."
A letter writer suggests that placing pouring spouts on milk cartons had been the greatest advancement in the milk industry since the cow, and hopes that they could now figure out some way to keep the wax from coming off the inside of the carton and floating in the milk.
A letter writer suggests that the Supreme Court decision on segregation was not the supreme law of the land, that it was the will of the people, and wants a national vote on segregation. He adds a P.S. that he had written to many of the black newspapers and that readers should read some of the things they said about "us".
You mean to say that they were saying bad things about morons who don't understand the first thing about the law and the Constitution, and obviously could care less and do not wish even to try to do so? Shame on them for mocking the backward people. They probably kick dogs and stomp on little kittycats, also.
A letter writer finds it shameful of the newspaper to fall asleep and print its editorial on March 7 about North Carolina food producers going outside the state to obtain good package designs. He informs that in Charlotte, they were producing some of the finest package designs in the nation, producing as much as 75 percent of total packaging in some industries. He thinks it the duty of the newspaper to inform the few unfortunate manufacturers of food products not already acquainted with the facilities in Charlotte that they did not have to go to the North to obtain package designs which would sell their product nationally, that it was being done in Charlotte every day.
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