The Charlotte News

Monday, December 29, 1952


Site Ed. Note: The front page reports that the Communist Chinese, stung by one of the heaviest allied airstrikes against a single North Korean target since the previous August, had struck back with a ground assault on the central front the previous night, but dug-in U.N. troops had driven them back in pre-dawn darkness during the morning. This date, the war slackened to a verbal offensive in which the Communists urged allied soldiers to surrender and enjoy a "big New Year's celebration" in North Korea.

Cloudy skies and snow squalls grounded most U.N. warplanes this date. The previous day, there had been a 200-plane raid on a Communist supply center near Pyongyang. Protecting Sabre jets destroyed two enemy MIG-15s, probably destroyed a third and damaged a fourth.

The Navy announced that a four-engine flying boat had crashed in the Sea of Japan on Friday night, and that ten of its fourteen crew members were dead or missing, with four survivors having been picked up by a U.S. destroyer. The Navy PBM had crashed about 50 miles east of Kosong, off the east coast of Korea. The cause of the crash was believed to have been mechanical difficulty.

Senator Joseph McCarthy said this date, in an interview published in U.S. News & World Report, that one of the first things he would do in the new Congress would be to investigate the nation's colleges in a search for subversive influences. He said that he expected "all hell" to break loose in such an investigation and that there would be "screaming of interference with academic freedom". He said that he nevertheless believed it to be of pressing interest to root out "Communist thinkers" from the nation's colleges. The Senator would be chairman of the Committee on Government Operations and of the permanent Senate Investigating Committee, in the new Senate. Representative Harold Velde, who would chair HUAC in the new House, expressed a similar desire to weed out Communists from the nation's colleges and from all fields of education.

In Wakefield, England, Dr. Alan Nunn May, the West's first convicted atomic spy, was released from prison this date. He was an admitted Communist scientist who had never publicly repented having given to the Russians samples of uranium material used in making the first atomic bomb in the U.S. He served six years and eight months of a ten-year sentence, having been provided the maximum one-third good time credit required by British law. He had been convicted in 1946 of communicating official secrets to an unknown person, possibly of use to the enemy. The trail from Dr. May had led to the arrest of Klaus Fuchs, another British scientist, who was serving a 14-year sentence, and to Ethel and Julius Rosenberg and Mrs. Rosenberg's brother, David Greenglass, the latter receiving a 15-year prison sentence in the U.S. for his cooperation in testifying against the others in the spy ring, while the Rosenbergs were set to be executed at Sing-Sing in New York in January.

The first in a series of four articles by Sterling F. Green regarding atomic energy indicates that the new Congress might give atomic energy a position in civilian life within two or three years, according to official estimates, as atomic plants could be producing limited quantities of electric power for industry in that period. In five years or less, a large central atomic plant could be built, which could produce both atom bombs and electricity, but there were no current plans for such a plant, as private industry was not ready to risk millions of dollars in building the necessary experimental plants, which held little promise of profits for many years to come, and the Atomic Energy Commission was not ready to divert the money or resources from defense. Such a proposal and others were likely to be heard early in the new year before the Joint Congressional Committee on Atomic Energy. Experts estimated that it could take from 10 to 50 years before atomic-generated electric power could be made cheaply enough to compete with energy from coal, oil or water power, that time period capable of being shortened by building experimental plants.

The Senate Internal Security subcommittee headed by Senator Pat McCarran of Nevada issued a report to the Senate on a four-day hearing held the previous October in Salt Lake City regarding the leadership of the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, urging the union to rid itself of its present leadership, and calling for a Federal law to bar Communists from holding office in or being employed by any labor organization, and permitting employers to fire workers who belonged to organizations designated by the Attorney General as subversive. The union accused Senator McCarran of "acting on behalf of big mine operators in a campaign to behead and dismember" the UMMSW, in the same way he had sought to wreck the U.N. The union claimed that there had been errors and omissions in the subcommittee hearing transcript, and it intended to request that the Senate take appropriate steps to find out whether those errors and omissions were deliberate or inadvertent.

HUAC, in its year-end report to Congress released on Saturday night, denounced Communism in some trade unions as "a national disgrace" and recommended repeal of the requirement of the Taft-Hartley Act that union officials file non-Communist affidavits to be able to partake in collective bargaining through the NLRB, indicating that it was now working to the benefit of members of the Communist Party involved in labor, as an individual could swear to non-Communist affiliation on the date he signed the affidavit, but could then join the Communist Party afterward with impunity.

A Federal District Court Judge in Buffalo this date declared the injunction provision of Taft-Hartley to be constitutional, granting the Government an 80-day injunction to restrain workers from continuing a strike at the Dunkirk plant of the American Locomotive Co. The United Steelworkers Union had contested the issuance of the injunction, and it was the first direct court test of the constitutionality of the injunctive provision of Taft-Hartley. The Government sought the injunction to keep the supply of nickel-plated pipe, vital to atomic energy, in production at the Dunkirk plant. The court ordered the workers to remain on their jobs until March 2 under the injunction.

Secretary of Commerce Charles Sawyer and a team of Government and private economists, in a report titled "Markets After the Defense Expansion", predicted good business in the new year, a possible downturn in 1954, and a sharp economic test in 1955. The report said that the economy had strong built-in safeguards against a depression in coming years, that the chief peril, as defense spending slacked off, was fear and uncertainty, not economic weakness.

President-elect Eisenhower would meet the following day at his New York headquarters with Senator Taft and other Republican Senate leaders to discuss the new Administration's legislative program, including the question of whether to continue wage-price controls. Senate leaders indicated that they would discuss with the new President the subject of filibuster limitation and civil rights legislation, though press secretary James Hagerty indicated that he had heard of no such items being on the agenda for discussion.

Seasonable temperatures prevailed over most of the nation this date and skies were clear from the Rockies to the Atlantic Seaboard.

In Washington, a cabdriver told police that two men who had hailed his cab the previous day and asked to be driven to a point outside Washington, had attempted to rob him when they reached the countryside, after initially handing him a ten-dollar bill as if to pay the fare and then suddenly demanded his money, at which point the cabdriver set off a teargas pencil which he carried in the cab, and after all three jumped from the cab, the two would-be robbers fled the scene, and the cabdriver eventually got back in and drove home, still with the $10 cab fare, about what he would have charged.

In St. Louis, Dr. William Kaufman, a physician and psychologist of Bridgeport, Conn., explained to the American Association for the Advancement of Science that wives who resented their husbands sometimes served them none of the foods they enjoyed, and that if her resentment reached a point of intense hatred, meat would be scorched, bread stale, vegetables served cold and soggy, with the husband beginning by criticizing her food and ending by paying her alimony. He said that women who envied the interesting time which men had at work often exaggerated the kitchen martyrdom involved in preparing homed-cooked meals in order to obtain concessions and rewards. He said that he knew of one woman who had on that basis obtained an extra television set, a fur coat, a small car and a separate bedroom. He said that many women enjoyed cooking, housekeeping and sex. Such women gave "their families pleasure through properly planned meals which had that extra something which stimulated the eye, the nose, the palate—while at the same time giving relief from hunger—thus creating feelings of emotional security for the entire family group."

On the editorial page, "Electricity and the Farmer" tells of a great change having taken place on the American farm by virtue of electrification. The annual report of the North Carolina Rural Electrification Authority had just been submitted to Governor Kerr Scott, and it showed that in 1935, there had been only 1,884 miles of rural electrical lines serving 11,558 rural customers in North Carolina, with 3.2 percent of rural dwellers having electricity, about one-third of the national average at 10.9 percent. But in mid-1952, there were 72,673 miles of lines serving 481,113 rural customers, with 90.4 percent of all rural dwellers having electricity, above the national average of 88.1 percent, with 17,000 more customers soon to be added in the state.

Private electric utility companies served the greatest number of rural customers, 282,538, while electric membership corporations operating under the REA served an additional 157,000, and municipal systems providing service for more than 40,000 customers.

Electricity had eased the burden of labor on farms, enabling the expansion of such operations as dairying. Electrification had also been good for the economy as a whole, enabling utilities to sell more electricity and appliance dealers to expand their markets.

It indicates that the goal of full electrification had been achieved in a relatively short period of time, a tribute to all who had a part in that "remarkable and typically American venture".

"Mr. Dulles' Great Opportunity" tells of the opportunity of the Secretary of State-designate to build a core of trained and seasoned diplomats who fully recognized America's position in the modern world and who were equipped to maintain that position.

Joseph C. Harsch, in the Christian Science Monitor, had said that the average American diplomatic establishment had little to do prior to World War I except to maintain reasonably pleasant social relations with other governments in time of peace, and that those appointed to diplomatic posts were personable young men who enjoyed social life or regarded foreign service as another place to be a clerk.

It indicates that the time had come to change that pattern and to end the practice of handing out ambassadorial posts as political plums. It favors establishment of a Federal academy for foreign service, and building an experienced, competent career diplomatic service. It finds that Mr. Dulles, with his training in diplomacy, would be well-equipped for that assignment, and would have greater support from the public and from Congress than had Secretary of State of Acheson. If he failed to make a start in that direction, then it looks forward to other years of "uncertainty and improvisation" which would eventually lead to "irremediable errors".

"No Sale, Guv'nor" tells of Governor Herman Talmadge of Georgia, chairman of the Southern Governors' Conference, having appointed Governor James Byrnes of South Carolina to present the South's viewpoint to the nation, on radio, television, in committee hearings and magazines.

It finds that the Governor could speak for the other Southern governors if they wanted him to do so, and could speak for the State of South Carolina as long as he remained the elected Governor. But as a spokesperson for the South, he fell short, as such Southern unity was not apparent, and so it would avoid subsidizing Governor Byrnes, as Governor Talmadge had urged.

"Caudle in Proper Perspective" finds that the Congressional subcommittee which had investigated influence peddling in the Justice Department and issued a report during the previous week that Wadesboro attorney and former Assistant Attorney General Lamar Caudle had been "honorably motivated" but "weak", a man who "never sold himself for riches or power" but had reflected the "decay within the Department of Justice" and showed "deplorable judgment at best", to have fairly well represented him. The report indicated that wherever the choice had been clearly between right and wrong, Mr. Caudle had chosen correctly. The piece, however, finds that latter assessment too generous, for Mr. Caudle having accepted entertainment and favors from persons interested in cases under his supervision.

It finds that any Government administrator had to have the strength to say no to sweet-talking bearers of gifts, and if lacking that ability, ought not be in a position in Government. Mr. Caudle, recognizing that weakness in himself, should have either hardened himself or given up Government service.

It finds, however, that Mr. Caudle had been forced to take the rap for a lot of others who had engaged in poor judgment and questionable ethical practices, and it hopes that the virtues of his home country would be fully restored in him in Wadesboro.

A piece from the Carolina Israelite of Harry Golden, titled "Charles W. Tillett", mourns the loss of the well-known Charlotte attorney who had apparently committed suicide a week earlier by jumping from the eighth floor of the Law Building where he had his offices on the sixth floor. It accords him a very high place in the history of the community and the state, as a lawyer of "prestige and ability" who had served his city and state with "unselfish and idealistic zeal". He had distinguished himself particularly for four years as the City Attorney, as well as having served on the UNC Board of Trustees and the City School Board.

But his life-work centered around his hope for permanent world peace through the cooperation of nations at the U.N. Largely through his efforts and that of the Charlotte Council on Foreign Relations, the General Assembly had passed a resolution urging the establishment of "a world federation of nations for world peace", nearly ten years before the U.N. had become a reality in 1945.

He had continued to believe in international collective security, while having misgivings about the actions of the Soviet Union.

During his latter years, he had been wracked with physical pain. But he never stopped fighting for the goal of world peace.

"It is the measure of Charles W. Tillett that the tragic 'manner of his dying' has been so completely overshadowed by the sense of loss among the citizens of Charlotte; as well as among his colleagues of bench and bar in our state, and far beyond the confines of Charlotte and North Carolina."

Drew Pearson indicates that the Eisenhower Administration would not undertake drastic tax cuts, and that only modest cuts would occur, even those not to occur right away. The advisers to the new President wanted him to let the excess profits tax expire on its own the following June 30, saving an estimated two billion dollars to corporations. They recommended reduction of individual income taxes only slightly, primarily in the lower brackets, unless Congress insisted on reductions in the upper brackets as well. Excise taxes would be cut by about 500 million dollars, with reductions most likely to occur in fur coats, women's pocketbooks, baby powder and oil, theater admissions and liquor. Those cuts might approach 750 million dollars before being finished, as it was difficult to resist the pressure from manufacturing lobbies.

The total cuts added up to between 3.5 and 4 billion dollars, and when compared to the Federal deficit, there would still have to be a large amount of cutting of spending before a balanced budget could be achieved. Mr. Pearson notes that the biggest area for achieving economy was in military waste.

The President had met with Lew Hines, organization director of the AFL, recently at the White House, and they had joked about a story that the President was planning to raise "yellow-legged chickens" after leaving office. Mr. Hines wanted exclusive rights to sell the eggs, which he said could do a lot of business around Washington, especially at Easter. Later, in recounting the story to AFL associates, Mr. Hines stated that they ought to bring General MacArthur into the egg deal, so that he could supply the ham and the three of them could open a short-order restaurant.

Governor Carl Skinner of Guam had quit after two years of bucking Navy brasshats, the pushing having gotten so bad that the Navy did not even notify Governor Skinner when President-elect Eisenhower stopped in Guam en route home from Korea.

The Russians were building a healthy East German Air Force in the guise of "air police". Mr. Pearson indicates that it was the same trick which Hitler had used to build up the Luftwaffe under the noses of the unsuspecting Western world. The East German air police had been trained first in gliders and small, piston-driven trainers. They had now graduated to larger aircraft and were supposed to form three jet interceptor squadrons, three more fighter squadrons, three fighter-bomber squadrons and three transport groups. The total number of airmen would be around 13,000. He notes that the chief Russian handicap was the fear that German pilots would defect to the American side and so the only Germans allowed in the air were those with families behind the Iron Curtain, being told that if they tried to skip, their families would be killed.

Senator Joseph McCarthy had come to the defense of Senator Harry Cain of Washington, defeated in the November election. Senator Cain had helped Senator McCarthy in fabricating the latter's war record, and Senator McCarthy was returning the favor by writing to Secretary of Defense-designate Charles E. Wilson, recommending Senator Cain for a high post in the Defense Department.

Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, writing in "Land Reborn", tells of Arab and Moslem lands in the Near and Middle East being feaudalistic systems, where the landlords owned everything, including the people, who were little more than serfs. Under such a system, Communism thrived, having been born out of a feudal system.

He indicates that he had been alarmed and distressed at the way the country had been wasting so much aid money abroad, aimed at the worthy goal of eliminating Communism, but reliant too much on dollars rather than elimination of feudal conditions and stimulation of positive examples of democracy, such as Israel. There, land tenure, illiteracy, disease, and corrupt government had been eliminated as problems. Israel sought to provide schools for every child and medical care for every family, with the result that malaria had been eliminated and other public health programs had flourished. Workers had strong unions and the agricultural economy was organized so as to give every farm laborer a stake in the country. There were no landlords. The standards of public service were high, with David Ben-Gurion and the late Chaim Weizman doing honor to any country as honest and courageous leaders.

The Israelis had the problem of making a just peace with the Arabs so that taxes could go to the land rather than to armaments. They had many internal political problems as well, with 11 political parties, requiring a coalition government. Water and topsoil and the development of productivity so that the economy did not need subsidization were also problems. The country needed food and the development of industries which could manufacture for export. It was costly to restore productivity of the earth and keep standards of living high, and so Israel would be on a subsidy basis for a long time to come.

He concludes that the country was an inspiration to many who knew no home, and was not only a democratic society where tolerance and understanding flourished, but was also "the pattern whereby the yoke of feudalism may be lifted."

Joseph & Stewart Alsop tell of early trouble already brewing for President-elect Eisenhower, more than three weeks prior to the inauguration. Some surface signs were the disgruntled Republican leaders in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. In the latter, Governor Alfred Driscoll and Senator Alexander Smith, both of whom having been for General Eisenhower prior to the Republican convention, had bristled at not having been consulted regarding the appointment of New Jersey business leader, Robert Ten Broeck Stevens, as the new Secretary of the Army, as well as the probable appointment of Douglas Dillon, of Dillon, Read & Co., as the Ambassador to France.

In Pennsylvania, Governor John Fine and Senator James Duff were upset over the prospect of appointment of Harold Stassen as head of the Mutual Security Agency, both the Governor and the Senator regarding Mr. Stassen as a carpetbagger to Pennsylvania politics. Neither was appeased by the appointment of another Pennsylvanian to a minor post.

Most Republican politicians believed that the trouble stemmed from the perception of Governor Dewey as having taken over the Eisenhower appointments process, through his surrogate, Attorney General-designate Herbert Brownell, a former adviser to Governor Dewey. But the Governor had not consulted but one time with President-elect Eisenhower since the election, and had little contact with Mr. Brownell, who was handling the appointments process for the new administration. He was doing his job in a businesslike fashion, comparing the job analysis of each position to elaborate dossiers compiled on those qualified to fill the posts, a catalog compiled by a businessman close to Mr. Brownell.

The Alsops posit that the heart of the trouble, however, lay in the idea that the government was being viewed as a gigantic business, which would be best managed by businessmen. Republican politicians did not share that view, held by Mr. Brownell and the President-elect. They liked big businessmen, but in their place in big business, not in the place of politicians in the government.

The Alsops observe that there was no reason for inflaming the politicians, after they had already not been consulted on many appointments, by failing to provide them with jobs. The President-elect had not wanted to run in the first place and had no political debts to anyone, with his only obligation being to put together the best administration which he could. He was taking a risk by forming a business administration instead of a political administration, but they suggest that there were many reasons to believe that the novel experiment was long overdue. They recognize that big businessmen were the most powerful single class in the country, one which needed to understand the American political process from which they had hitherto been divorced, limiting their political understanding. Now that they were being brought into the government and were being made responsible, if they wisely grasped the opportunity, it could become a turning point, "leading to the wiser, more informed conservatism that this country badly needs."

Congressional Quarterly indicates that North Carolina farmers had a big stake in the new Republican-controlled Congress, which would be considering laws involving price supports programs, foreign markets and other factors vital to agriculture. Farming had produced 17.4 percent of North Carolina's 1951 income.

The Quarterly had determined in a survey of problems facing the new Congress that farm bills generally would be important to every state, regardless of differences in the crops produced. It provides a table of comparison between North Carolina and the entire country in the millions of bushels produced in 1951 of wheat, corn and potatoes, as well tobacco, peanuts, beef, hogs, and butter. The tables showed that the state produced 43 percent of the nation's tobacco, while only negligible amounts of the nation's wheat, potatoes, beef, hogs and butter. It produced 542,000 of the nation's 15,144,000 cotton bales, about one million of the 50 million eggs, and about 1.6 million of the 115.5 million pounds of milk.

Fifth Day of Christmas: Five dogs aglay in the gloaming, each vying to pull Santa's sleigh home to the dome-den.

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