The Charlotte News

Monday, September 27, 1948


Site Ed. Note: The front page reports that the three Western powers sent the Berlin crisis to the U.N. Security Council this date, premised on the Soviet blockade posing a threat to world peace. The presentation to the Security Council would likely begin Thursday.

The move prompted British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin to express worry that it would wreck the U.N. He said that if such were to occur and that if it led to war, the fault would be that of Russia. But he believed it better to have difficulties presently than to live in a "fool's paradise". He urged the nations to "open up the world and let light and knowledge come in", to which the delegates cheered.

The move followed the complete collapse of diplomatic talks with Russia regarding the crisis. The State Department released a 3,000-word note which accused Russia of negotiating in bad faith and creating a threat to international peace. The Department also released the 24,000-word White Paper which was said by diplomatic sources to prove that the Russians were seeking to force the three Western powers out of Berlin.

Russia's continued membership in the U.N. was in grave doubt and concern that a shooting war might erupt was increasing.

Berlin's City Government stated that all four occupying powers ought leave the city if they could not settle their differences. It also urged that the four-power administration be limited to military concerns and allow the Germans to have a free hand in administration of the city. The resolution also asked that as long Berlin remained under occupation, it be by all four powers with no one power having more control than others. The latter was considered as a slap to the Russians.

Marshal Sokolovosky, military occupation governor of the Russian occupation zone of Germany, was reported to have been recalled to Moscow for consultation.

For the second straight day, Russian troops stopped all American vehicles en route to the air base at Tullin, Austria, requiring passage through the Russian occupation zone. American authorities said that they planned no protest of the action, as the Americans were allowed to proceed after identifying themselves. The roadblock was aimed at catching Red Army deserters.

Mr. Bevin urged the U.N. to take speedy action on the posthumous recommendations of Count Folke Bernadotte anent Palestine, favoring recognition of Israel and leaving the Arab sections of Palestine controlled by Arabs, subject to the desires of the people in those areas, with Jerusalem as an international city. He said that Britain supported the entire recommendation.

Pravda criticized Soviet architects for building "pseudo Parthenons" with the "excessive use of pillars", in imitation of American architecture, not recognizing "Socialist realism" in preference to "bourgeois formalism".

The new wave of stark Soviet realism in architecture, we assume, would find expression 13 years hence in the Wall.

President Truman, campaigning through Texas, starting in San Antonio after a speech the previous day from the Alamo, followed by a pre-recorded radio broadcast this date celebrating Democratic Women's Day, again attacked the "mossback" 80th Congress while visiting Austin, saying that it was trying to "tear up the Bill of Rights". He said that the reason 80 to 90 percent of the nation's newspapers opposed his re-election was because they favored the special interests and were against the people.

It should be noted that Congressman Lyndon Johnson appeared with the President in San Marcos, Texas, and was endorsed by the President in the Senate race several times across the state, in Temple, Waco, and Bonham, though not mentioned in his remarks from the train in Austin.

Senator Alben Barkley, Democratic vice-presidential nominee, was campaigning in Asheville, N.C., to deliver an address to be broadcast across the state by radio at 8:30 p.m. Should you wish to tune in to catch his remarks, the stations are provided.

Governor Dewey was campaigning in the Pacific Northwest, saying that the bipartisan U.N. delegation represented a united America, and urging that everyone who shared the American vision unite in prayers for peace. His aides said that the Governor supported the taking of the Berlin crisis before the Security Council.

Governor Earl Warren, Republican vice-presidential nominee, was campaigning in New York.

Senator Homer Ferguson wired the President to try to find out whether FBI director J. Edgar Hoover would be allowed to testify before Congress as to the number of Communists or other disloyal persons in the Government. He told the President further that while he believed the President had no personal sympathy with Communism, the perception had grown in the country that he was allowing suspected disloyal persons to remain in the Federal Government to avoid embarrassing revelations regarding his Administration.

Well, ask Senator McCarthy. He has a ketchup bottle which tells the tale.

Former OPA head Leon Henderson, chairman of Americans for Democratic Action, urged the President to name a non-partisan commission to investigate all phases of the loyalty issue.

Five campaign workers for former Vice-President Henry Wallace spent the previous night in an Augusta, Ga., hotel under police protection, after reporting that they were taken outside the city and beaten by 40 to 50 men in a dozen automobiles after they raided the Progressive Party headquarters in the city, kicking in a door and window. They then drove the four women and one man to Grovetown, slapped and treated them roughly before letting them go. A crowd gathered in front of the hotel where the police kept the five under guard. The five had been gathering signatures to get the Wallace ticket on the Georgia ballot.

Five students from Fresno State College in California were killed in a crash of a private plane near Portland, Oregon, on Sunday, returning from a football game between Fresno State and the University of Portland.

John Daly of The News reports of support by the City Government of the natural gas pipeline proposed to run from Texas and Louisiana into the Piedmont Carolinas. The support was communicated to the Federal Power Commission, though not binding on the City Council.

Secretary of Agriculture Charles Brannan, visiting the city, praised the Charlotte soil conservation experiment set for October 14, in which several people would contribute labor and equipment to replenish the soil of a 120-acre rundown farm owned by two veterans.

Tom Schlesinger of The News reports of Mr. Brannan's visit and speech in nearby Monroe before 500 persons at a meeting of the Union County Farm Bureau. He said that the 80th Congress had engaged in a "sit-down strike" with regard to farm policy, that the Roosevelt-Truman farm program was the best any nation had ever enjoyed, and that the Administration was working to improve the lot of farmers despite the "do-nothingism" of the Congress.

The sports staff had gone behind the benches and dressing room doors to provide the details of the weekend collegiate football games of the Carolinas, emphasizing the UNC versus Texas, N.C. State versus Duke, and Davidson versus William & Mary contests played on Saturday.

UNC had won 34 to 7, to open what would be a 9-0-1 regular season, only tying William & Mary, before losing to Oklahoma on New Year's Day in the Sugar Bowl, 14-6. By mid-October, UNC would be the number 1 team in the nation and would finish number 3. Duke and N.C. State tied 0-0, both on the way to lackluster seasons. William & Mary, which would finish the season number 17 in the nation, beat Davidson 14 to 6, on the way to a 7-2-2 season, beating Oklahoma A & M on New Year's Day in the Delta Bowl.

You can try to outwit the experts by predicting next week's scores. They will probably do better, however, because they are the experts.

On the editorial page, "The Wounded Earth" discusses conservation in light of the summer release of William Vogt's The Road to Survival, one of his theses having been that corn depleted the soil and actually created hunger by building populations, with the problem being visited on the tenth generation down the line and beyond. He advocated educating the public to what unregulated natural resources would do to subsequent generations.

The piece suggests that evidence of lack of conservation could be found in the dull-red Yadkin-Great Pee Dee River system, with Appalachian hillsides running off into its floodwaters. At Britain's Neck, S.C., the red water joined with the peat-blacked Little Pee Dee in stark contrast, running side by side for nearly a mile until the red water conquered the black.

Because conservation was dull and often got in the way of business, it did not usually get the enthusiastic support of the average citizen. In North Carolina, the Governor had appointed the Resource-Use Education Commission to inform the public of its responsibilities. Professors Paul Wager and Donald Hayman of UNC had written a book titled Resource Management in North Carolina to publicize the needs of the region. They believed that the era of freebooting was over and that wise farming practices, contour plowing and use of cover crops, would help to heal the land and restore the depleted soil.

It finds that there was increasing understanding of Theodore Roosevelt's words, "To skin and exhaust the earth is to undermine the days of our children." It remarks that the "Carolina Farmer" section of the newspaper on each Monday preached the same gospel graphically.

"Rituals of Autumn '48" finds the campaign trails of Governor Dewey and President Truman, crisscrossing the country by rail, to embody largely "old political talk". But it was necessary for the American people to hear it and weigh it, even if, according to Gallup and Roper, the results of the election were already foreordained. No citizen should vote, it urges, without becoming aware of the candidates and the issues.

The President's "give 'em hell" campaign was vigorous and demonstrated his zeal. He called the Republicans "gluttons of privilege" and jousted at real and imaginary windmills in the process. His tactics, however, showed his desperation amid a disintegrated Democratic Party, with factionalization on the right and left. He presented himself, as had FDR, as the "friend of the little man".

Governor Dewey and Governor Warren were campaigning with a genteel and mannerly style, in keeping with their top place in the polls. Governor Dewey had admitted that not all of the Government's problems were attributable to the President but were beyond the control of any government. He had, to some extent, ignored the President, telling of what he intended to do as President. He was waging a safe campaign, stressing unity and the outlook for peace.

That strategy would likely change only if President Truman appeared to make a dent in the commanding lead enjoyed by Governor Dewey in the polls.

A piece from the Asheville Citizen, titled "A Primary Myth Comes to Life Again", debunks the myth being tossed around, first in the Democratic primaries and resurfacing in the general election campaign, that North Carolina had 171 million dollars of "surplus and idle funds". W. Tom Bost of the Greensboro Daily News, "dean of the Raleigh press corps", had explained in detail that the 171 million dollars represented the entire amount of money in the State Treasury, was neither "surplus" nor "idle".

Drew Pearson tells of why the investigation had abruptly ended, having been started by Senator Homer Ferguson of Michigan, into the conduct of Senator Elmer Thomas of Oklahoma, regarding the latter's influence over the price of cotton from the floor while having surrogates speculate for him in the cotton market, as revealed by Mr. Pearson on May 6, 1946—printed in The News May 9. Senator Thomas had discovered that Senator Ferguson and his son-in-law had questionable connections with Chrysler and had written Senator Ferguson a letter on February 14 regarding the matter, at which point the investigation of Senator Thomas was suddenly dropped. Mr. Pearson publishes the contents of the letter.

Senator Thomas accused Senator Ferguson and his colleagues of going on a "fishing expedition" with regard to Senator Thomas's commodities speculation, and threatened to expose Senator Ferguson's shady dealings with Chrysler, which allegedly included gifts to the Senator's family, "swanky parties", and paid vacations to influence legislation.

Marquis Childs discusses the politicization of the Government loyalty tests. Congressman Edward Hebert of Louisiana, a member of HUAC, had charged that the Committee only wanted to make a case and was not so interested in getting at the facts. At the same time, the President's "red herring" remark anent the committee hearings on espionage within the Government, he believed, was another form of playing politics.

The Administration's loyalty tests, remarks Mr. Childs, while conducted in private, not as public smearing campaigns as with HUAC, nevertheless had engaged in strange findings at times. Of over two million Government workers, 5,421 were determined to be in need of full investigation by the loyalty review board. Of those, 883 had resigned during the investigation. Of the remainder, only 54 cases had been deemed disloyal and 21 of those had appealed the finding.

In one case of alleged disloyalty, the individual had only provided a contribution to an old college classmate accused in the Canadian espionage case, eventually acquitted, that he might be able to afford counsel. The same individual had given to the United Jewish Appeal, prompting a comment from a board member that he was showing too much zeal for the underdog, a comment stricken from the record by the board.

Responsible citizens disturbed over these tendencies of the loyalty tests and the public smears occasioned by the HUAC hearings, one example of the latter cited by Congressman Hebert having been the case of Dr. Edward Condon, head of the Bureau of Standards, had recommended that an impartial body be established led by someone of impeccable credentials, such as former Supreme Court Justice Owen Roberts, to review the loyalty cases and the cases brought before the public by HUAC, and hold hearings in private. Something along the lines, he posits, needed to be done, as the political campaign would only cause these problems to fester.

Stewart Alsop comments on Josef Stalin, vacationing in the Crimea, receiving visits from satellite Communist leaders, as Rumania's Foreign Minister Ana Pauker, Bulgaria's Dimitrov, Hungary's Rakosi, and Czechoslovakia's Gottwald and Klementis. Only Poland had thus far remained absent. It was assumed that discussions centered on the fate of rebellious Marshal Tito in Yugoslavia, as well as paying attention to Berlin and who would be the successor to Andre Zhdanov, recently deceased former head of the Cominform.

A few weeks earlier, the Kremlin had directed that General Arso Yovanovitch, Tito's wartime comrade-in-arms, would succeed Tito, and preparations were made for him to lead a putsch on Belgrade. But the Yugoslav secret police discovered the plot and shot General Yovanovitch before it could develop. Moscow was presumed now to be looking for a substitute to fill the role. There was also afoot a plot orchestrated by Moscow to assassinate Tito if the opportunity arose. The economic squeeze on Yugoslavia by Russia also continued, with Russia, Albania, and Rumania having cut off supplies, including oil, to Yugoslavia. The blockade undoubtedly would be extended to include the other satellites as well.

The putsch against Tito would take place when the replacement for General Yovanovitch was found, and the plans were likely being discussed in the Crimea between Stalin and the satellite leaders. The broad scope of the plans suggested how serious the Kremlin regarded the rebellion of Tito.

Albert Coates, director of the Institute of Government in Chapel Hill, discusses a proposed amendment to the North Carolina Constitution, on the November 2 ballot, to allow the raising of salaries of the General Assembly from $600 during each regular biennial session and $8 per diem for special sessions to $1,200 for the regular session and $250 for special sessions, with higher salaries for presiding officers, as allowed under the existing provision. He explores the arguments against and in favor of the amendment.

You may read his arguments and exegesis for yourself, so that you will not suffer that malady which Professor Coates once termed, quoting G. K. Chesterton, "the ignorance of the educated".

Dig yourself.

Why do you think you go to schoo?

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