The Charlotte News

Friday, September 24, 1948


Site Ed. Note: The front page reports that in Berlin, the Russians fired practice rounds from anti-aircraft guns into the crowded air corridor being served by the British and American airlift, but it did not slow the airlift or inflict any damage, the Russians having warned the British and Americans of the intended practice 90 minutes before it began. The firing lasted three and a half hours.

An American officer commented that the Russians were firing up to 10,000 feet, the highest the airlift transports flew, and that the notice was insufficient.

Nevertheless, the airlift delivered 3,600 tons of food and coal during the previous 24 hours, and had delivered over 194,000 tons since the beginning of the blockade on June 26.

The U.S. banned all Soviet-sponsored newspapers in the American zone of Germany, responsive to a similar ban by the Soviets of Western newspapers, nullifying a 1947 four-power agreement to permit free flow of news and information between the zones.

Tass described Secretary of State Marshall's address of the previous day to the U.N. General Assembly as a political maneuver connected with the presidential campaign, to portray American foreign policy in rosy colors for the American voter.

In Paris, the U.N. General Assembly gave Russia seven quick defeats in its effort to eliminate certain matters from the agenda. Only the Slav-bloc nations voted with Russia to block the issues. In all, the agenda carried 69 items. The issues to which Russia objected dealt with Korean independence, proposals to limit the Security Council veto, establishment of the Little Assembly on a permanent basis, the Balkan Commission report which had found Communist rebels in Greece being aided by the Communist border countries, the Argentine proposal to admit nations to the U.N. on a seven-member vote of the Security Council regardless of veto, and proposals to promote international political cooperation.

The State Department delivered a note to the Communist Government of Bulgaria accusing it of maintaining "involuntary servitude, banishment, concentration camps, imprisonment, torture and execution."

In Amman, Trans-Jordan, the Arab Legion announced that Jews had shot down an Arab airlines transport plane killing two British correspondents and an Arab.

In Shanghai, a prominent Chinese businessman was executed with one shot to the back of the head for black market activities, the first civilian so executed in China's campaign to halt inflation.

The Justice Department filed a court action to force Alcoa to reduce its power and size, an effort to carry out a judgment against it for antitrust violations found in 1945. The president of the company called it "election year politics".

A Federal grand jury was set to probe the DuPont industrial empire for possible anti-trust violations.

Not reported on the front page, the President began this date his return swing across the country by train, speaking in San Diego, Phoenix, and points in between.

Tom Schlesinger of The News reports again on 44-year old Governor Strom Thurmond, this time focusing on his personal life and recent marriage to a 23-year old, whom he had once patted on the head when she was 9 after he spoke as a circuit judge to her class in school. She had made up her mind then and there to marry him one day. He had also been a judge of the Miss South Carolina Beauty Pageant in which she was selected the winner. Later, she became his secretary and he used to dictate to her, until one day he asked via letter to marry her. They took their honeymoon in Cuba. She had taken to her job as first lady of South Carolina "like a cool mint julep to a summery day".

She gon' be First Lady of the whole country come Januar'. You watch. Get it in the House and the rest'll be there.

The hurricane which had hit Cuba and Florida and then skirted Bermuda was headed north along the Eastern Seaboard, 320 miles northwest of Bermuda, still packing 75 mph winds over a 50-mile radius, moving at 35 mph, a substantial increase from its 8 mph speed through Florida.

In Nashua, N.H., Textron president Royal Little promised in an emotion-choked statement to try to keep open the two textile mills, employing 3,500 persons, which had previously been set for closure. He said that one sheeting mill employing a thousand would remain open if Textron could turn a ten percent profit. But 2,000 layoffs by the end of the year would still likely have to take place. Senator Charles Tobey of the state applauded the remedial action.

In Shelby, N.C., the woman who had originally admitted shooting to death her husband's 15-year old lover, an unwed mother, and then recanted the story saying that her husband made her give the statement under threat of harm, again made the claim anew. She asserted that when she appeared in the bedroom of the house where her husband was in bed with the girl, the girl jumped from the bed and grabbed a pistol, which the woman then took from her and shot her with it. She and her husband remained charged with murder, along with the owner of the house.

In Charlotte, a section of ceiling at the American Trust Co. fell and injured eleven persons, including two seriously, with fractured spines from the falling plaster. No cause was given for the collapse.

In Jerseyville, Ill., a man selling practically new automobiles at list price from an alfalfa field two miles south of the town had a lot of people wondering how he did it. His 1948 Chevrolets were selling for $1,740, promising delivery after payment of cash, 60 to 90 days hence. He had been doing business on that basis since the previous April. Normal retail was $2,550. Other dealers were demanding that the State revoke his dealer's license, contending that he was violating some regulations.

Sure. He was violating the stick-it-to-'em-whenever-you-can law of auto economics.

The sports writers were predicting the outcome of the weekend football games on the sports page. You won't wish to miss it.

On the editorial page, "United States World Policy" tells of Secretary of State Marshall having outlined before the U.N. General Assembly meeting in Paris the U.S. foreign policy the previous day, with an elementary requirement, for cooperation between nations, that relations be based on mutual confidence, respect, and tolerance. He pledged that the U.S. would do everything it could to reach peaceful settlements to political controversies.

Of Berlin, he said that it would be a mistake to equate U.S. patience with weakness. He favored early settlements on Germany and Japan so that they might, in due course, prove themselves worthy of membership in the U.N. He favored restoration of the political and economic freedom of Austria within its 1937 frontiers and immediate admission of it to the U.N. He also favored immediate admission for Trans-Jordan and Israel, and that the posthumous recommendations of Count Folke Bernadotte be adopted for Palestine, recognition of Israel and leaving the Arab sectors to be controlled by Arabs. For Korea, he proposed unification and independence with membership in the U.N. For Greece, he recommended that it be made secure from aggressive and unlawful interference. For East India, he proposed a negotiated settlement without further bloodshed in Indonesia.

And he favored international atomic control and progressive reduction of armaments under an adequate and dependable check against violations.

He did not discuss the recent invasion by India of the princely state of Hyderabad, resolved by Hyderabad's surrender. And he did not discuss China, where he had been the President's envoy in 1946.

Reaction from the Soviet bloc, against which he made complaint as resisting positive accomplishments in world relations, was, from the Polish Foreign Minister, to attack the Marshall Plan and Western efforts to unite their occupation zones in Germany.

Secretary Marshall's primary point was that the U.S. would not compromise or barter rights and freedoms of other peoples. The piece thinks that a succinct statement of that for which the country stood and undercutting of Henry Wallace's policy of appeasement with Russia.

"Myrtle Beach Deserves Air Service" favors the campaign to establish a regular air shuttle between Charlotte and the South Carolina resort, plus establishing trunk lines with the seaboard to the north and south of it. One of the main reasons for success of Miami Beach was its ease of access by air from New York.

The Civil Aeronautics Board had agreed to hear the request of Myrtle Beach, and Piedmont Aviation of Winston-Salem had expressed an interest in supplying the service. Eastern and National Air Lines also would likely join the service.

A piece from the Shelby Star, titled "Sharp Words for New England", discusses the decision of Textron to close its two Nashua, N.H., textile mills based on the findings that Southern labor was more productive than Northern labor by 25 to 100 percent, at 10 percent lower take-home pay. The piece thinks it rational that the textile manufacturers were seeking a good day's work for a day's pay. The Textron finding and conclusion served as a warning to New England manufacturers to increase productivity if they wished to hold on to their industries.

It expresses pride in Southern productivity.

Drew Pearson tells of the Blue & Gray Association of Montgomery, Ala., which sponsored the annual college football all-star game between the North and South, having sponsored a meeting between Southern and Northern civic leaders in Montgomery to address the issues of health, education, segregation and opportunities for black citizens. The Southerners asked questions and the Northern participants, chosen by local civic organizations, tried to answer them. The hottest debate, however, was between two Northerners, the head of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Earl Shreve of Schenectady, N.Y., and Kiwanian Ben Dean of Grand Rapids, Mich., the former opposed to Federal aid to education and the latter espousing the belief that if the Government could fund highways, it ought fund education.

Mr. Pearson provides excerpts of reports written on the meeting after it had concluded: from the Philadelphia Rotary Club, finding it sincere and mutually respectful between blacks and whites attending, finding also no discrimination between white and black teachers in Alabama; from the director of Lions International, Richard Bell, finding black education in the South an eye-opener to the Northerners, that segregation was expected by both races, though blacks and whites mingled while the attendees were on their feet; from the past president of Kiwanis International, that the North needed to tidy up its own backyard before casting aspersions on the South, a stimulus of further discord.

The Association was collecting $1 from each of its members to establish a memorial to the end of North-South misunderstanding.

General Lucius Clay had two books in his office in Frankfurt. One was Missouri Compromise by Tris Coffin, re the Truman Administration, and the other was Lost Illusion by Freda Utley, a story of life behind the Iron Curtain. The General had considerable difficulty getting the Administration to set policy for Germany and in getting Marshal Sokolovsky, Russian military occupation governor in the Soviet zone, to keep his word. Marshal Sokolovsky was under constant watch by the Russian secret police. In all negotiations, a Russian political commissar, assigned from Moscow, was present making the real decisions. Throughout his tenure, at least part of Marshal Sokolovsky's family continued to reside in Russia, as a hedge against him developing ideas of switching sides in the cold war.

Within 500 miles of Berlin, there were 500,000 Red Army combat troops of the first rank, including scores of tank and heavy artillery divisions. A thousand new Soviet jets were within the same radius of Berlin, plus another thousand inferior two-engine medium bombers. Within Russia, there were two million Red Army troops ready for action. And on the Czech-German border, there were 25,000 German slave laborers mining uranium ore for the Russian atomic experiments. Recently, all work on the atomic bomb was turned over to the head of the secret police. The ore was being flown from the mines to a location behind the Ural Mountains, albeit ore which was inferior to that in the Belgian Congo and Canada, which supplied the U.S.

Despite warlike preparations in Russia, they had not double-tracked the railroads to Berlin, which would be a sure sign of impending war. Nor had the number of divisions around Germany been increased in the previous year.

Marquis Childs again, as the day before, addresses the spring Supreme Court decision striking down the basing-point pricing system of the cement industry and the effort by the subcommittee chaired by Senator Homer Capehart to make the system legal at the behest of large industry.

Governor Dewey was promising to curb monopoly in the country while preserving the free enterprise system. To do so, he would have to overcome powerful interests as President, the same interests pressing the Capehart subcommittee to recommend legalizing the base-point pricing system.

The excess profits tax of the war had produced appeals for refunds of 5.5 billion dollars, expected to rise to eight billion by the filing deadline of 1950. The IRB had developed a council of five tax specialists to handle the appeals, which were based on the theory that the companies had not exceeded their 1936-39 average profits, the base period for determining the excess profits. The tax council was trying to limit the amount of refunds by taking out the profits from the base period which had been generated through monopolistic practices.

Many asked why not allow monopoly as big business was efficient in production. But the problem was that if only a couple of large businesses dominated an industry, it would make it easier for the Government ultimately to take over that industry. That was the real danger, he concludes, which could not be ignored.

James Marlow reviews Education in International Understanding in American Schools, recently published by the National Education Association, the result of two years of work by top educators trying to understand the part which schools, primary and secondary, could play in educating children regarding the world in which they lived. The book was aimed at teachers and cost $1.

He recommends it also to parents, as they could also do the things it recommends for the classroom. It had a long chapter on working together to assume responsibility and develop understanding of others' problems and desires, and learning that others are brothers.

It also had a long list of recommended reading on the topics.

A letter writer who had previously related of her experience as a longtime resident of the North not having heard criticism of the South, finds her letter to have prompted several comments, at least some of which suggested misunderstanding of her points. She says that the civil rights issue had prompted bitterness between the regions. But the bitterness was fanned by politicians and it did individuals no good to take up the cry. She believes that segregation would not be maintained in Heaven. She concludes that those who sought to divide group from group struck at the heart of the nation.

A letter writer finds the realization of Biblical prophecy coming from the East-West conflict. Communists were the avowed enemies of God and had discarded, he asserts, the Ten Commandments and the teachings of the Sermon on the Mount. Clouds appeared darker than ever before in human history.

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