Site Ed. Note: The front page reports that in New Delhi,
forecasting the assassination on January 30, a bomb hurled by a
Hindu refugee exploded against a wall 50 yards from Mohandas Gandhi,
as he addressed an open prayer meeting. He had ended his fast for
peace on Sunday after five days and one hour. The man who had thrown
the bomb also had a hand grenade in his pocket. He was arrested and
taken into custody.
John Foster Dulles testified to the Senate Foreign Relations
Committee that Soviet leaders were doing everything they could to
weaken the economies of Europe's free states, making the Marshall
Plan mandatory. He said that it was to the "enlightened
self-interest" of the country to implement the Plan. There
could be no peace treaty for Germany and Austria until the Plan was
in operation, assuring the free states that they would remain so. He
also favored placing policy-making for Germany in the hands of the
State Department—which, under President Eisenhower, he would head
until his death in 1959. Mr. Dulles had been the chief GOP foreign
policy adviser since the 1944 presidential campaign, when he served
in that role to the party nominee, Governor Thomas Dewey.
In Berlin, Soviet Marshal Vassily Sokolovsky told the Allied
Control Council that Russia was opposed to establishment and
reorganization of the British and American combined zones. He
charged that the bizonal merger was violative of the Potsdam
agreement of July, 1945. It was the first Allied Control Council
meeting since the failed London foreign ministers conference during
The Republican Steering Committee in the House was planning
its tax proposal, apparently set to ignore the previous day's
testimony of Bernard Baruch, recommending no tax cut for two years
and imposition of inflation control. The Republicans also appeared
prepared to accept the Knutson 5.6 billion dollar plan and to reject
the President's proposal for a $40 individual credit to be financed
by a 3.2 billion dollar corporate tax increase. Republican leaders
suggested, however, that the Knutson cut would be trimmed to about
four billion dollars.
Senator Charles Tobey of New Hampshire, chairman of the
Senate Banking Committee, came out in favor of a preparatory meat
rationing law, proposed the previous day by Senator Ralph Flanders
and Congressman Jacob Javits, but said he opposed giving the
President other powers to regulate the cost of living until the
voluntary-compliance bill, passed during the special session, had a
chance to work.
The Senate Armed Services Committee rejected the President's
nomination of Maj. General Laurence Kuter to become head of the
Civil Aeronautics Board. A member of the Board, meanwhile, resigned,
leaving a third vacancy out of five positions.
Ed Pauley, assistant to Secretary of the Army Kenneth Royall,
insisted that the Senate investigators looking into his speculation
in the grain market issue a statement either saying that he made
money through business acumen only or proceed to prove that he
benefited from inside information. He denied the latter contention,
made by GOP presidential candidate Harold Stassen. Mr. Pauley stated
that he would resign his present Government posts, including being
reparations adviser in the State Department, at the end of the
month. Both positions had been temporary.
The winter cold continued to grip North and South Carolina
and highway officials urged caution as light freezing rain coated
the highways and byways and dirt roads which lead, however long and
circuitously, right to your door.
In Winston-Salem, officials of the Forsyth County Committee
on Public Solicitation met to determine whether it would remain the
only county in the nation without a March of Dimes drive to combat
polio. Members of the Committee believed that the National
Foundation had been raising funds out of proportion to its need.
In Charlotte, Mecklenburg County officials, including Welfare
Superintendent Wallace Kuralt, father of eventual News reporter and CBS newsman
Charles Kuralt, met to determine a course of action to have the
eleven year-old girl, born mentally defective, admitted to a mental
facility, following a story the previous day by Tom Fesperman
indicating that the child was in a crowded four-room home with nine
other people, including five other children. The girl was reported
to be violent and impossible to control, compromising the health of
her younger brother, suffering from rheumatic fever.
Freck Sproles of The News tells of women's fashions
for the summer being practical and "'prissy'", based on the New York
fashion shows. The pictures and the story appear in the Women's
Section, should you have an interest in being practical and prissy.
Frank Morgan says: "Flatterer... A flatterer, I have
noticed, is a man who says things to your face he wouldn't say
behind your back. Flattery is a kind of soft soap—and as we all
know, soft soap is a lye."
On the editorial page, "A North Carolina Tragedy"
remarks on the eleven-year old mentally defective girl whose family
had been unable to have her committed thus far to a mental facility
for the absence of space.
The State was undertaking an expansion program of its mental
facilities, but in the meantime, it urges, there should be an
investigation to determine whether there had been indifference
demonstrated to the plight of the girl.
"Taft Gaining over Dewey" tells of Governor Dewey,
still not an official candidate for the GOP nomination, having
finally authorized his executive assistant to issue a statement
saying that he would accept if nominated.
That much was already known. The question arose whether the
Governor had waited too long to announce his candidacy to enable him
to overcome the lead held by Senator Taft, an announced candidate
since the end of 1947.
It suggests that the Republicans were being dragged to an
uncertain fate by Senator Taft, and that Governor Dewey had cause
for concern as to the viability of his own candidacy. If the GOP
nominated Mr. Taft, then the platform would inevitably be
isolationist on foreign policy and opposed to both ERP and inflation
"Gandhi's Lesson in Peacemaking" tells of the end
of Gandhi's fast having occurred Sunday after 121 hours. He did so
after pledges from Moslem and Hindu leaders that they would carry
forth his program of peace through "restoration of communal
The piece contrasts this picture with the columns appearing
in many American newspapers on Sunday which forecast a nuclear war
in the 1950's, one without a winner and in which everyone would
lose. It showed how far adrift from reality America was, compared to
the sanity being demonstrated in India.
The Hindus and Moslems who respected Gandhi were moved to put
aside their differences, at least temporarily, in deference to his
The tragedy of the West, it offers, was that it was afraid to
trust its own spiritual powers. It had no loving leader as Mahatma
Gandhi, "Mahatma" meaning "great-souled one". No
one could speak of peace and love in the United States and command
The Christian world was waiting, it says, for a voice to
arouse it from the "evil war trance" induced by fear.
It hoped that Gandhi's work would remind the West that a
positive demonstration of good will was more powerful than the atom
bomb. Too many of the people did not desire peace and too many
accepted war as a fait accompli or favored a preemptive war.
Too few had confidence in the U.N.
One cabal in India, of course, would see to it ten days hence
that the "sanity", of which the piece speaks, would be,
Three leaders, each of whom in varying degrees carried their
own spiritual force, one openly modeling his public life after
Gandhi, would bless the nation in the 1950's and 1960's, only to
have their corporeal lives also cut short by bullets. We hope that
yesterday, as we celebrated Martin Luther King Day, you thought of
all three of them.
Two were politicians, but, in one sense, so are we all and so
was Gandhi, a lawyer by profession. One does not have to stand for
political office to engage in politics. If you converse about
anything of importance to the country or to the world, you are
engaging in politics. Without it, we would be lost to tyrants.
A short piece from the Memphis Commercial Appeal,
titled "A Dollar's Worth", describes how a dollar would
not go as far as it once would, with productivity per person in the
work place imperiling existing structures of hours and pay. It
advises that what would be done for the dollar would redound to the
Excerpts appear from a speech by Justice William O. Douglas,
delivered in Chicago on the occasion of the commemoration of the
centennial of the birth of Governor John Peter Altgeld of Illinois. Justice
Douglas, who was being touted as a possible vice-presidential
candidate if he wanted the position on the Democratic ticket,
praised Governor Altgeld for his stands in protection of civil
liberties at a time, during the robber-baron era, when civil
liberties were being assailed.
Justice Douglas said: "I remember recent instances where tyrannical
judges sitting in local courts rode roughshod over the civil
liberties of defendants charged with crime. In one case it was a
doctor, in another an editor who thundered personal disapproval and
started campaigns to rid their cities of those oppressive
To do so, he warned, was not always easy and required
persistence and courage. But those devoted to democratic rights
would take the "direct and daring course." And that,
despite that they might be "pilloried and cursed".
"A people indifferent to their civil liberties do not
deserve to keep them, and in the revolutionary age may not be
expected to keep them long. A people who proclaim their civil
liberties but extend them only to preferred groups start down the
path to totalitarianism."
It was better to lose pleading the case for democracy than to
lose by default.
Drew Pearson tells of the head of the National Farmers'
Alliance urging the President to go to Congress as any other citizen
and put forth his views before a Congressional committee. The
President dissented, saying that his best weapon was to go before
the American people with a microphone.
Senator Harry Cain of Washington had been given the job by
Senator Taft to draft a bill continuing rent control beyond the
current deadline of February 29. But Senator Cain was opposed to
rent control. Democrats had introduced bills with teeth.
Comptroller General Lindsay Warren had probed the operations
of RFC subsidiaries. Mr. Pearson provides some of the initial
findings, re Andrews Steel in Newport, Ky., resulting in Government
The President had called in Democrats from the House Ways &
Means Committee to build up opposition to chairman Harold Knutson's
5.6 billion dollar tax cut proposal. He again urged his plan for a
$40 credit per individual, funding it with a 3.2 billion dollar
corporate tax increase.
Former Postmaster General and DNC chairman Robert Hannegan
was of the opinion that one of the worst mistakes of the Truman
Administration had been dispensing with the excess profits tax right
after the war, which taxed virtually all of the income of
corporations after the point of profits equal to those earned in the period immediately prior to the war. Federal Reserve chairman Marriner Eccles was of the same
Joseph & Stewart Alsop indicate that Russia appeared to
have caught on, in a rudimentary fashion, to how American politics
worked, as demonstrated by their hope that the Henry Wallace
third-party candidacy would wind up causing the election of a
reactionary Republican, in turn, the downfall of the Marshall Plan.
Word now had it that Russia planned to withhold any action in
Europe for the ensuing two months during debate on the Plan, in the
hope of lulling the Republican majority in Congress either to
abandon or severely weaken the Plan. The Soviet bullying had in the
previous two years resulted in the 3.7 billion dollar loan to
Britain in 1946 and Truman Doctrine aid for Turkey and Greece,
approved the previous spring, as well as the emergency winter aid
for Italy and France approved in the recent special session of
November and December.
They warn that if the Republicans took the bait and junked or
weakened the Plan, the results would be disastrous in Western
Europe, starting with Britain in the spring.
Samuel Grafton wonders what it was like to be a fifteen-year
old growing up in America, experiencing for the first time in its
peacetime history a collective animus directed toward an avowed
enemy, Russia. For two and a half years since the end of the war,
the anti-Soviet rhetoric had dominated the colloquy anent foreign
The consequence was that the country now had an
eleven-billion dollar defense budget in peacetime and could not
touch it without a loss of security. It meant that as long as the
cold war would last, the defense budget was locked and could not be
reduced, taking away a fourth of the country's revenue before
It left little money for social programs after the basic
operations of the Government itself were factored into the equation.
During the previous history of the country, it had not had to
spend large amounts on defense in peacetime. That fact had
distinguished it from other nations.
The country was rendered fundamentally different, he says, by
having to spend eleven billion dollars on defense.