The Charlotte News

Tuesday, May 13, 1947


Site Ed. Note: The front page reports that the U.N. Political Committee defeated by a vote of 26 to 15, with 12 abstentions and two absent, a Soviet measure to have an inquiry commission draft proposals for immediate independence of Palestine. The Committee voted that the inquiry commission should submit proposals it thought necessary for solution of the Palestine problem. The Syrian delegate stated that the Arab delegations were considering walking out of the proceeding in protest of the action.

The Senate had passed the Taft labor bill by a vote of 68 to 24, enough to assure override of the President's veto. The bill included a ban on the closed shop and an anti-Communist provision, though the latter was opposed by Senator Taft. A substitute measure offered by Democrats, comporting with the President's requests, allowing for continuance of the closed shop and not providing for injunctions against national emergency strikes, failed. The bill would now go to conference to be reconciled with the more stringent House measure.

In Rome, Premier Alcide De Gasperi, a Christian Democrat, resigned his post based on Socialist attacks on the three-party coalition Government, arising from the country's debt problem. The coalition Government had been formed by the Christian Democrats, Socialists, and Communists. Becoming Premier in October, 1945, Mr. De Gasperi had resigned twice before and been asked each time to form a new Government.

A teenage girl testified before the Senate committee considering the ban on liquor advertising, saying that nice teenagers resented going to parties where beer and cocktails were served. A representative of the brewery workers said it was a bill designed as a first step on the road to return to prohibition and would cost thousands of veterans their jobs.

In the trial of former Congressman Andrew May and the Garsson brothers for alleged fraud in connection with war contracts, two letters to General Eisenhower from Mr. May were introduced as evidence, showing that the Congressman had sought intervention by the General in the court martial of the son of one of the Garsson brothers. The General had replied that he was referring the correspondence to court martial reviewing officers. Captain Garsson then had his court martial verdict of discharge from the Army suspended.

Another witness testified that Mr. May had asked him to provide an "E" award for outstanding war production to the Garsson firm. Mr. May had also contacted him complaining about the cutback in one of the contracts and in withholding $800,000 in another.

In Pickens, W. Va., a fire destroyed nine buildings of the town.

In Dunn, N.C., a power lineman suffered a broken leg rescuing a fellow worker from death after he had slipped and become entangled in hot electrical wires.

In Shelby, N.C., a tie rod on a front wheel of a bus broke causing the bus to lose its steering and plunge down an embankment, injuring 14 of the thirty student passengers.

In Winston-Salem, former Undersecretary of the Treasury John W. Hanes told the Junior Chamber of Commerce that he no longer was a Democrat and believed the Democrats were no longer competent to run the country. He was especially incensed about the "socialist income tax", believed that the presently pending tax reduction bill was good but should be delayed until 1948.

The Supreme Court decision the day before supporting the Interstate Commerce Commission reduction by ten percent of Southern freight rates and increase by ten percent of Northern rates to remedy discriminatory rates of the past was greeted with approbation in the South and scorn in the North.

In Greenville, S.C., selection of an all-white jury was completed in the case of the 31 defendants, 28 of whom were taxi drivers, charged with murder by lynching of Willie Earle in February, taking him from the custody of the Pickens jailer at gunpoint and then beating and shooting him in the head after he had been accused of killing a fellow cab driver the night before. After the jury was charged by the judge and the opening statement by the State, the prosecution called its first witness.

In Los Angeles, Hedy Lamarr, seeking a decree cancelling her contract with producer Arnold Pressburger based on her prior pregnancy and inability therefore to complete a picture under the contract, was able to postpone trial on the matter because of a possible settlement.

Also in Los Angeles, the last guardianship proceedings were held in the twenty-year old divorce case of Charlie Chaplin and his former wife, Lita Grey, regarding their two sons, both of whom had now reached age 21.

In Los Angeles, the decision of the Hollywood Bowl directors to deny use of the facility to Henry Wallace for a speech on May 19 was being denounced by the Democratic State Central Committee, chaired by James Roosevelt, son of the late President. The former Vice-President would speak instead at Gilmore Stadium.

On the editorial page, "Carolina Shares Britain's Troubles" informs that Britain had in 1946 consumed 364 million tons of American tobacco and paid 220 million dollars for it, with North Carolina getting its share of the booty. It represented an increase by one-third above that consumed by Britain prior to the war.

Now, the Chancellor to the Exchequer was moving to slash the tobacco imports because of the gross trade imbalance, increasing the tariff from $7.15 per pound to $11.04. Now, Britons had to pay 67 cents per pack for American cigarettes—the initial subject of the letter printed the previous Saturday from the young boy from London.

The previous year, 45 percent of the American tobacco crop was exported, two-thirds of it to Britain. The increase in the tariff was expected to cut consumption by at least a third. The result could be disastrous for the Southern tobacco farmer. The only hope lay in continuation of the Federal subsidy on tobacco.

With the textile industry favoring raising of tariffs to prevent foreign competition, as urged by Senator Burnet Maybank of South Carolina at the Cotton Manufacturers Association gathering in Augusta the previous week, it would be difficult to argue to the British that they should not raise the tariff on tobacco.

The piece concludes that free enterprise was the best approach, even if current conditions required some strictures.

"Stassen Cross-Examines" tells of former House Ways & Means Committee chairman Robert Doughton of North Carolina, fiscally conservative, casting a vote against the Truman Doctrine because he did not believe the country could afford the 400-million dollar aid package to Greece and Turkey. To be opposed to the program on that basis did not subject Mr. Doughton to the charge of being a sympathizer to the Communists, as many were seeking to claim with regard to anyone who opposed the President's program.

Harold Stassen of Minnesota had argued that the doctrine was essentially negative, to stop Soviet expansion, that the money ought be spent to create something better in Europe than the stale monarchies and dictatorships.

As Samuel Grafton had pointed out the previous Saturday, the only bipartisan aspect to the foreign policy was the anti-Russian sentiment and as soon as the Democrats proposed any method of implementation of the policy, the Republicans united against it.

The piece thinks Mr. Stassen ought remain in the role of foreign policy critic and that it would increase his chances for obtaining the 1948 Republican nomination.

"The Veterans Hospital Program" discusses the program approved by Congress in 1946 to build 75 V.A. hospitals, including one in Charlotte. Thus far, none had been built and construction was proceeding on only seven. The V.A. had put several temporary hospitals into operation and expanded service to veterans.

But there were 23,000 veterans awaiting entry to hospitals.

There was no explanation or excuse for the failure to undertake the building program. If more money was needed because of rising costs, then the Congress should be willing to appropriate it. The veterans deserved the care and the people had made up their minds during the war that they were entitled to it.

Drew Pearson tells of Secretary of State Marshall giving his first dinner party, held in his loaned home belonging to Nelson Rockefeller, since his return from the Moscow Foreign Ministers Council meeting. World Bank head John J. McCloy was present as were former Secretary of State James Byrnes and Ambassador to Russia Walter Bedell Smith.

There had been a time when Mr. Byrnes would not have easily met with General Marshall, after Mr. Byrnes had returned a year earlier from Moscow, also after a failed mission, and many had counseled that he be replaced with General Marshall, then special envoy to China. Word had leaked and the plan was canned, but it had upset Mr. Byrnes.

Now that the bill to provide aid to Greece and Turkey had been passed, the President had to determine how the money would be spent. The 250 million to Greece would run out in a year, and if the President had to go back to Congress for more in the midst of an election campaign, then, Mr. Pearson predicts, he would not be elected. If the program worked, then the Truman Doctrine would make history and the peace of the world would be materially stabilized.

He offers his own advice on how to spend the money, based on his having spent two years in Greece after World War I. He suggests using the King as General MacArthur had used Emperor Hirohito, letting him write decrees but directing what was to be said. To avoid being mired in a corrupt dictatorship, the Greek Government should be led, again through the King, at every juncture. He advises against wasting any of the money on the Greek Army, which had a history of killing civilians. He advocates granting amnesty to all political prisoners and exiles, using most of the money to rebuild the ports of Salonika and Piraeus, and the railroad bridges. The British should forgo their high-interest loans to Greece. The U.N. should appoint observers to report on everything done by the United States in Greece. Through the King, a new coalition Cabinet should be appointed, representing all factions in the country, save the Communists and Fascists.

Stewart Alsop tells of considering the contest between the United States and Russia, a bit of which he had observed on his trip abroad to Palestine and Egypt, returning via London. His one question was whether the United States could do the job to prevent Soviet expansion into the region by aiding in the process of establishing political and economic stability. One condition for accomplishing the task was that Britain remain a major world power. A total British collapse in the region would leave a vacuum more likely to be filled by Russia than the United States.

A prominent Tory had told Mr. Alsop that Britain could no longer be relied upon to do the job, as evidenced by the cuts in exports and the coal shortage. Some Socialists viewed the situation as ushering in the Socialist majority within a couple of years. Most competent observers saw the situation as being somewhere between the two extremes, having guarded optimism that England could make it.

The key was in coal, but the Welsh mines were almost exhausted and the Yorkshire mines, with still rich seams, were short of manpower. The workers were lethargic throughout the British economy as the Government had nothing to provide them as incentive to work hard, there being no consumer goods available to be had. But the nationalization of the coal industry appeared to have buoyed spirits and the production curve was climbing.

Members of Parliament were exhausted for lack of personnel to manage the transformation of the country to a semi-Socialist state. One Labor Party official told Mr. Alsop that the major barrier in the transformation was not being able to obtain good personnel to administer the Government-run economy, rather than, as they had long thought it would be, resistance from the ruling class.

Britain, no matter which party had come to power after the war, would be in tenuous economic straits. The British economists were hoping for a return of the world buyers' market in food.

Samuel Grafton tells of the anti-labor members of Congress making liberal use of the phrase "right to work" in their fight to ban the closed shop. Should there be a wave of unemployment in the summer, this phrase might be taken up by labor to embarrass the Republicans.

It was not correct to try to assert that the closed shop was the only barrier to "the right to work". There were age barriers in some plants, racial barriers, and religious barriers in others. But trying to obtain legislation from the same conservatives for the benefit of blacks, Jews, and people over 40 was always met with resistance. Economic downturn was another serious concern which would hamper the right to work. The right to work of which Congressmen spoke was only useful against the union.

The principle had been invented to justify a bill. The closed shop had not been denying the right to work but rather was using it for a social purpose, to promote collective bargaining through a strong, cohesive union.

It was possible that the right to work ideal would turn into a social movement to assure equality of opportunity in the workplace, despite the proponents of the measure being resistant to those broader principles.

A letter from a former G.I. finds it problematic that the county electrical inspector was facing pressure of resignation only three months after his hiring. He advises retaining the services of the inspector for the sake of the safety of the county against fire hazard. Mr. Brown and Mr. Green might otherwise have fires from improperly connected wires.

For the home repair enthusiast, it should be noted that repairs of the normal 110 circuitry is a relatively simple matter, with the electricity off. On plugs, one keeps the black wire, the hot wire, on one pole, the little copper screw or plug-in on one side of the back of the plug, while keeping the white wire, the neutral leg, on the other pole. The completely bare copper wire is the ground and is simply connected to the green screw. It is never hot unless improperly connected.

On light switches, the principle is that the toggle connects or breaks the circuit formed by the hot wire, to turn on or off the switch. It is an interrupter of the black wire. The black wire feeds from the electricity source to the switch, running in one pole, and then continuing out the other pole to the light or plug which it operates, all through the black or hot wire. The only wire to the switch is a black or hot wire, except in the case of three-way switches. The ends of the white wires are simply connected to one another within the switch box and neither is connected to the switch.

Three-way light switches, that is a pair or more of switches on a single circuit which can turn on or off a light or other device from two or more locations, have a red wire, in addition to the black wire. The red wire is run between the three-way switches, special switches which have a third pole to accommodate the third wire. The pole for the red wire on those switches is marked "common", typically by a colored screw.

Generally, make sure all exposed copper, other than the ground wire, is covered inside the metal or plastic box enclosing the switch or plug, by means of a plastic screw-nut and electrical tape as needed. No bare wire, other than the ground, should be touching a metal box, and no bare wire should be touching another bare wire of a different color or a short will result, potentially leading to a fire hazard if the circuit is not properly fused at the circuit box.

A 220-volt circuit has two black or hot wires rather than a white neutral leg, and usually also has a red or common wire to act as a neutral leg, though not always. The plugs are different, though a conventional plug may be wired for 220 voltage, but is not typical save in custom installations. It is as simple as conventional wiring, bearing in mind the principle that there are two hot wires, each supplying 110 volts to the circuit. The 220 wiring is used only for 220 appliances and will ruin any device operating on 110 volts, and could also in the latter case become a fire hazard, which is why the plugs are usually configured differently for 220 voltage applications.

That way, you can save yourself a large electrician's bill when the plug or wall switch goes bad. But always first make sure that the power to the switch is off at the fuse box to avoid lighting yourself up. An ordinary 110-volt electrical wire will not kill you unless you are in water, but it is no fun to be shocked. The 220 wiring, such as for an electrical clothes dryer, will potentially be lethal. In any event, never work on any circuitry with the power on, and never mess with the main wires from the electrical pole into the meter at the main fuse box of the house, the province of the power company. Working on the individual circuit trippers in the fuse box requires shut off of the main trips at the top of the box, or via the main trips at the box containing the meter on the outside of the house.

Remember that no touching black and white wires or grounded hot wires, means no fires, there being little hazard of that in any event as long as the circuit trips at the fuse box have proper amperage to enable a quick trip at the first sign of undue heat on the line.

Know your wires, avoid electrical fires. In this instance, segregation is good between the coppers. The power will not operate with integrated wires, though they remain bound together operating in mutually insulated harmony to enable the system to work.

If you live in or close to a swamp, be wary also of the swamp gases percolating up from down underneath, which could trap fire and arc, welding you to the nails in the floorboards, if you are not careful. In that event, wear welder's gloves while working on the wires.

A letter writer informs of the efforts of the Unitarians to form a church in Charlotte and urges its support. He notes that the Unitarians "let you believe whatever you dern please".

Framed Edition
[Return to Links
Page by Subject] [Return to Links-Page by Date] [Return to News<i><i><i>--</i></i></i>Framed Edition]
Links-Date -- Links-Subj.